Editor: Giuseppe Rizzo

4D Fetal Echocardiography

Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $118
Printed Copy: US $119
ISBN: 978-1-60805-634-7 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-044-4 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2010
DOI: 10.2174/97816080504441100101

Introduction

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical importance screening performed by ultrasonographic examination during the second trimester of pregnancy has shown disappointingly low detection rates mainly due to the difficulties in obtaining an adequate examination of the fetal heart. Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound of the fetal heart has been recently suggested as a tool to improve the detection rate of CHD by decreasing the dependency on operator skills required in two-dimensional ultrasound scans but up to now no practical manuals are available in describing its application in clinical practice for the study of fetal heart. The objective of this Ebook is to explain the role of 4D during second trimester examination and in fetuses with CHD. The technique of obtaining 4D volume of the fetal heart, how to navigate in the volume to obtain diagnostic planes and how to use semiautomatic and automatic software of analysis are described. We believe that after reading this book the standard fetal cardiac anatomy survey can be performed in the second trimester fetus by 4D in both normal and abnormal hearts. This approach may reduce the operator dependency in diagnosis CHD. This Ebook should prove to be a valuable resource for obstetricians, sonographers and pediatric cardiologists.

Contributors

Editor(s):
Giuseppe Rizzo
University di Roma "Tor Vergata"
Italy




Co-Editor(s):
Domenico Arduini
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Università di Roma Tor Vergata
Italy




Contributor(s):
Alfred Abuhamad M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Norfolk
VA
USA


Reuven Achiron M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The Chaim Sheba Medical Center
Tel Hashomer, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv
Israel


Domenico Arduini M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Università Roma Tor Vergata
Rome
Italy


Timothy Bennett M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Missouri-Kansas City School Medicine
Kansas City
MI
USA


Gianluca Campobasso M.D.
Fetal Medicine Unit
Di Venere and Sarcone Hospitals. ASL Bari
Bari
Italy


Rabih Chaoui M.D.
Prenatal Diagnosis and Human Genetics
Berlin
Germany


Sarah M. Cohen M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centers – Mt. Scopus
Jerusalem
Israel


Valentina De Robertis
Fetal Medicine Unit
Di Venere and Sarcone Hospitals. ASL Bari
Bari
Italy


Greggory R. DeVore M.D.
Fetal Diagnostic Center
Pasadena
CA
USA


Marco Di Maurizio M.D.
Department of Radiology
Ospedale Meyer
Florence
Italy


Jimmy Espinoza M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
William Beaumont Hospital
Royal Oak
MI
USA


Giuliano Farina Ph.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Azienda Ospedaliera “C.Poma”
Mantova
Italy


Laura Franceschetti M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Azienda Ospedaliera “C.Poma”
Mantova
Italy


Michal Lipscheutz M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centers – Mt. Scopus
Jerusalem
Israel


Pietro Gaglioti M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit
University of Turin
Turin
Italy


Liat Gindes M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer
Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv
Israel


Gianpaolo Grisolia M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Azienda Ospedaliera “C.Poma”
Mantova
Italy


Maurice Guirgis M.D.
University Paris VII
Service Explorations Fonctionnelles
Hôpital Robert Debré
Paris
France


Wesley Lee M.D.
Division of Fetal Imaging
William Beaumont Hopsital
Royal Oak
MI
USA


Lucia Manganaro M.D.
Department of Radiology
Università “La Sapienza”
Rome
Italy


Dev Maulik M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Missouri-Kansas City School Medicine
Kansas City
Missouri
USA


Baruch Messing M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centers – Mt. Scopus
Jerusalem
Israel


David Mundy M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Missouri-Kansas City School Medicine
Kansas City
Missouri
USA


Roberta Iacobelli M.D.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Bambino Gesu’ Hospital
Rome
Italy


Manuela Oberto M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit
University of Turin
Turin
Italy


Giovanna Oggè M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit
University of Turin
Turin
Italy


Dario Paladini M.D.
Fetal Medicine & Cardiology Unit
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University Federico II of Naples
Naples
Italy


Luciano Pasquini M.D.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Bambino Gesu’ Hospital
Rome
Italy


Georgios Rembouskos M.D.
Fetal Medicine Unit
Di Venere and Sarcone Hospitals. ASL Bari
Bari
Italy


Giuseppe Rizzo M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Università Roma Tor Vergata
Rome
Italy


Roberto Romero M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Perinatology Research Branch Intramural Division
NICHD, NIH, DHHS Hutzel Women’s Hospital
Detroit
MI
USA


Sara Savelli M.D.
Department of Radiology
Università “La Sapienza”
Rome
Italy


Gabriella Sglavo M.D.
Fetal Medicine & Cardiology Unit
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University Federico II of Naples
Naples
Italy


Elena Sinkovskaya M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Norfolk
VA
USA


Fabrizio Taddei M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Azienda Ospedaliera “C.Poma”
Mantova
Italy


Tullia Todros M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit
University of Turin
Turin
Italy


Alessandra Toscano M.D.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery
Bambino Gesu’ Hospital
Rome
Italy


Dan V. Valsky M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centers – Mt. Scopus
Jerusalem
Israel


Nicola Volpe M.D.
Fetal Medicine Unit
Di Venere and Sarcone Hospitals. ASL Bari
Bari
Italy


Paolo Volpe M.D.
Fetal Medicine Unit
Di Venere and Sarcone Hospitals. ASL Bari
Bari
Italy


Alina Weissmann-Brenne M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
The Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer
Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv
Israel


Simcha Yagel M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centers – Mt. Scopus
Jerusalem
Israel


Lami Yeo M.D.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Perinatology Research Branch Intramural Division, NICHD, NIH, DHHS
Hutzel Women’s Hospital
Detroit
MI
USA




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