Editor: Giuseppe Rizzo

4D Fetal Echocardiography

Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $118
Printed Copy: US $119
ISBN: 978-1-60805-634-7 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-044-4 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2010
DOI: 10.2174/97816080504441100101


Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical importance screening performed by ultrasonographic examination during the second trimester of pregnancy has shown disappointingly low detection rates mainly due to the difficulties in obtaining an adequate examination of the fetal heart. Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound of the fetal heart has been recently suggested as a tool to improve the detection rate of CHD by decreasing the dependency on operator skills required in two-dimensional ultrasound scans but up to now no practical manuals are available in describing its application in clinical practice for the study of fetal heart. The objective of this Ebook is to explain the role of 4D during second trimester examination and in fetuses with CHD. The technique of obtaining 4D volume of the fetal heart, how to navigate in the volume to obtain diagnostic planes and how to use semiautomatic and automatic software of analysis are described. We believe that after reading this book the standard fetal cardiac anatomy survey can be performed in the second trimester fetus by 4D in both normal and abnormal hearts. This approach may reduce the operator dependency in diagnosis CHD. This Ebook should prove to be a valuable resource for obstetricians, sonographers and pediatric cardiologists.


- Pp. i-ii (2)
Beryl R. Benacerraf
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- Pp. iii
Domenico Arduini and Giuseppe Rizzo
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- Pp. iv-viii (5)
Domenico Arduini and Giuseppe Rizzo
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Epidemiology of Congenital Heart Diseases

- Pp. 1-7 (7)
Maurice Guirgis
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Second Trimester Screening of Congenital Heart Disease

- Pp. 8-19 (12)
Giovanna Ogge, Pietro Gaglioti, Manuela Oberto and Tullia Todros
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The Examination of the Normal Fetal Heart

- Pp. 20-28 (9)
Alessandra Toscano, Luciano Pasquini and Roberta Iacobelli
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Real Time Three Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography Using Two Dimensional Array Technology

- Pp. 29-37 (9)
Dev Maulik, David Mundy and Timothy Bennett
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Rendering Cardiac Volumes in Three and Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography

- Pp. 38-49 (12)
Jimmy Espinoza
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Analysis of Acquired Volumes: Methodological Approach

- Pp. 50-61 (12)
Greggory R DeVore
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The Applications of HD and B Flow in 4D Echocardiography

- Pp. 62-69 (8)
Simcha Yagel, Sarah M Cohen, Dan V Valsky, Michal Lipscheutz and Baruch Messing
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3D Live Echocardiography with Matrix Probes

- Pp. 70-77 (8)
Fabrizio Taddei, Laura Franceschetti, Giuliano Farina and Gianpaolo Grisolia
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Automated Echocardiography

- Pp. 78-84 (7)
Elena Sinkovskaya and Alfred Abuhamad
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Four D and 2D Echocardiographic Evaluation of Anomalies of the Venous Connections

- Pp. 85-94 (10)
Paolo Volpe, Valentina De Robertis, Campobasso Gianluca, Nicola Volpe and Georgios Rembouskos
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Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in Fetal Atrial, Ventricular and Atrioventricular Septal Defects

- Pp. 95-103 (9)
Rabih Chaoui
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4D Study of Right Heart Anomalies

- Pp. 104-118 (15)
Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini
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4D Study of Left Heart Anomalies

- Pp. 119-134 (16)
Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini
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Conotruncal Anomalies

- Pp. 135-146 (12)
Dario Paladini and Gabriella Sglavo
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First Trimester Study of Fetal Heart with 4D Echocardiography

- Pp. 147-159 (13)
Weissmann-Brenner Alina, Gindes Liat and Achiron Reuven
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Assessment of Cardiac Geometry and Stroke Volumes by 4D Fetal Echocardiography

- Pp. 160-177 (18)
Lami Yeo, Roberto Romero and Wesley Lee
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Feasibility, Technique and Potential Role of Fetal Cardiovascular MRI: Evaluation of Normal Anatomical Structures and Assessment of Congenital Heart Disease

- Pp. 178-196 (19)
Lucia Manganaro, Marco Di Maurizio and Sara Savelli
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Conclusions and Future Developments

- Pp. 197-200 (4)
Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini
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- Pp. 201-203 (3)
Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini
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