Editor: Mario Vaneechoutte

Was Man More Aquatic in the Past? Fifty Years After Alister Hardy - Waterside Hypotheses of Human Evolution

eBook: US $99 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $168
Printed Copy: US $119
Library License: US $396
ISBN: 978-1-60805-355-1 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-244-8 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2011
DOI: 10.2174/97816080524481110101


The book starts from the observation that humans are very different from the other primates. Why are we naked? Why do we speak? Why do we walk upright? Fifty years ago, in 1960, marine biologist Sir Alister Hardy tried to answer this when he announced his so-called aquatic hypothesis: human ancestors did not live in dry savannahs as traditional anthropology assumes, but have adapted to live at the edge between land and water, gathering both terrestrial and aquatic foods.

This eBook is an up-to-date collection of the views of the most important protagonists of this long-neglected theory of human evolution at the 50th anniversary of its announcement in 1960. It brings together the views of leading scientists such as anthrolopogy professor Phillip Tobias, marine biologist Richard Ellis, waterbirth gynaecologist Michel Odent, nutritional biologist Michael Crawford and science writer Elaine Morgan.


- Pp. i
Elaine Morgan
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- Pp. ii-iv (3)
Mario Vaneechoutte
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List of Contributors

- Pp. v-vi (2)
Mario Vaneechoutte
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Revisiting Water and Hominin Evolution

- Pp. 3-15 (13)
Phillip V. Tobias
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Littoral Man and Waterside Woman: The Crucial Role of Marine and Lacustrine Foods and Environmental Resources in the Origin, Migration and Dominance of Homo sapiens

- Pp. 16-35 (20)
C. Leigh Broadhurst, Michael Crawford, Stephen Munro
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A Wading Component in the Origin of Hominin Bipedalism

- Pp. 36-66 (31)
Algis V. Kuliukas
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Early Hominoids: Orthograde Aquarboreals in Flooded Forests?

- Pp. 67-81 (15)
Marc Verhaegen, Stephen Munro, Pierre-Francois Puech, Mario Vaneechoutte
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Pachyosteosclerosis in Archaic Homo: Heavy Skulls for Diving, Heavy Legs for Wading?

- Pp. 82-105 (24)
Stephen Munro, Marc Verhaegen
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Aquatic Scenarios in the Thinking on Human Evolution: What are they and How do they Compare?

- Pp. 106-119 (14)
Algis V. Kuliukas, Elaine Morgan
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Human Breath-Hold Diving Ability Suggests a Selective Pressure for Diving During Human Evolution

- Pp. 120-147 (28)
Erika Schagatay
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Marine Adaptations in Human Kidneys

- Pp. 148-155 (8)
Marcel F. Williams
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Obstetrical Implications of the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis

- Pp. 156-163 (8)
Michel Odent
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Superior Underwater Vision Shows Unexpected Adaptability of the Human Eye

- Pp. 164-172 (9)
Anna Gislen, Erika Schagatay
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Human Aquatic Color Vision

- Pp. 173-180 (8)
Wang-Chak Chan
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Seafood, Diving, Song and Speech

- Pp. 181-189 (9)
Mario Vaneechoutte, Stephen Munro, Marc Verhaegen
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Aquagenesis: Alister Hardy, Elaine Morgan and the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis

- Pp. 190-198 (9)
Richard Ellis
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Just Add Water: The Aquatic Ape Story in Science

- Pp. 199-212 (14)
Tess Williams
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Langdon's Critique of the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis: It's Final Refutation, or Just Another Misunderstanding?

- Pp. 213-225 (13)
Algis V. Kuliukas
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- Pp. 226-244 (19)
Mario Vaneechoutte, Algis Kuliukas, Marc Verhaegen
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