This e-book discusses the molecular relationship between biological systems and risk factors for in-utero oxidative insults, maternal health and the impact on fetus at different critical developmental time windows (prenatal or even postnatal). Plausibly, prenatal and early postnatal periods are the most critical “windows” to oxidative stress programming insults. Pro-oxidative stress is a common feature of many conditions associated with adverse fetal growth and/or preterm birth, such as pre-eclampsia, diabetes, smoking, malnutrition or excessive nutrition, infection or inflammation. Oxidative stress insults may be directly linked to or associated with many genetic, nutritional and environmental risk factors that contribute to risks of adverse fetal growth or preterm birth. This e-book should be a valuable reference for medical researchers and working professionals interested in congenital defects.