Real and complex exponential data fitting is an important activity in many different areas of science and engineering, ranging from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics to Electrical and Chemical Engineering, Vision and Robotics. The most commonly used norm in the approximation by linear combinations of exponentials is the l2 norm (sum of squares of residuals), in which case one obtains a nonlinear separable least squares problem. A number of different methods have been proposed through the years to solve these types of problems and new applications appear daily. Necessary guidance is provided so that care should be taken when applying standard or simplified methods to it. The described methods take into account the separability between the linear and nonlinear parameters, which have been quite successful. The accessibility of good, publicly available software that has been very beneficial in many different fields is also considered. This Ebook covers the main solution methods (Variable Projections, Modified Prony) and also emphasizes the applications to different fields. It is considered essential reading for researchers and students in this field.