In recent years, nanoelectronics devices have been finding potential applications in all fields that are easing the life of human beings, like agriculture, energy harvesting, medicine, battery, sensors, optoelectronics, pyro-photonic, food processing, bio-nanotechnology, aerospace, automobiles, pharmaceutical, paints, cosmetic, aeronautic, medical imaging (MRI, ultrasound),
etc. Therefore, it is necessary to produce well-organized information for researchers, scholars, academicians, and scientists working on the design, synthesis, and simulation of nanoelectronics devices and simulation modeling and characterization of materials for nanoelectronics devices. This information would help those working on nanoelectronics to conduct academic classes, research, and develop new products. Industries are producing nanoelectronics devices for different applications by putting great effort into the research and development to make them more efficient, reliable, durable, and low cost, which needs systematic information on current developments in the field.
These requirements have encouraged the editors to invite proficient, learned, and expertized authors to contribute chapters and provides in-depth information and concept of present nanoelectronics devices considering material synthesis, design, and synthesis of nanoelectronics devices. The authors of chapters have worked in the field for a long time and proven themselves in their field over the globe. The chapters are classified as nanotechnology-based solar-cell, medical devices, power grid devices, agriculture devices, cosmetic biosensors, and advanced transistors. The chapters present theoretical and experimental work and broad reviews of the existing state-of-the-art. The simulation and modeling of the nanoelectronics devices and materials for nanoelectronics devices are also considered equally. This book is for a one-semester course on nanoelectronics devices. The book is classified in to two volumes one and two. First volume consist fourteen chapter, those presented here.
Organization of part 1
Chapter 1 of the book starts with a broad introduction to nanoelectronics devices and nanomaterials, where the authors present the present, past, and future of nanoelectronics. Nanotechnology briefly introduces and applicability of MOORs law. This chapter produces the classification of the nanomaterials based on the size and different nanofabrication approaches, like top-down and bottom-up.
Chapter 2 presents the self-assembly of the monolayer for molecular electronics, an integrated part of nanoelectronics. Transport of charge carrier, electrode, and measurement of the such device covered in detail. Materials used for the fabrication of the molecular devices are also presented.
Chapter 3 presents the performance of the core cell double gate junctionless transistors for current nanoelectronics-based integrated circuits. A multigate field effect transistor properties modified by channel doping. Fermi level adjustment in junctionless transistor explained properly. In junctionless transistors, there is a core, and cell structure improves its performance.
Chapter 4 presents tunneling field effect transistors that lead to the area reduction on the integrated circuits, mostly in non-polar devices. The results are simulated for a channel length of 20 nm under varying temperatures to understand the leakage current and other transistor parameters.
Chapter 5 presents a nanowire-based field effect transistor that overcomes the limitations of the conventional MOSFET. The negative capacitance of the nanowire-based field effect transistor is explained in depth. Band bending and distribution of potential simulated and presented. The implication of transistors in integrated circuits is presented with illustrations and simulation results.
Chapter 6 discusses an electrode's effect on the linear region of a thin film transistor. The triple material double gate was applied to control current conduction in the channel, and silicon was the channel material. The three metals are arranged horizontally of varying lengths affecting the transistor performance. The transistor performance is analyzed in both analog/RF ranges.
Chapter 7 deals mechanism of gas sensing by thin film transistors whose channel is of II-IV semiconductor, an effective transistor in the current generation of technology. Novel metals improve the gas sensing properties of the bare II-IV-based semiconductor. Transistor active layers have different characteristics identified by different characterization tools: atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction,
etc. Electrical characteristics in hydrogen and without hydrogen are investigated.
Chapter 8 produces a wast state-of-art of fin FET important nanoelectronics. Fin FET shows high mobility of the carriers, an improvement over the double gate. Details about current conduction and control over the channel are identified. SOI further improves the properties of this transistor. New trends in Fin FET technology are also presented in detail that would help readers to do future development in existing technology. Fin FET physical structure is evaluated intensively.
Chapter 9 provides the best example of the integration of electronics and optics. Such transistors are tunneling types those explained in previous chapters. Simulation results obtained by technology computer-aided design produced. Working and geometry are explained properly.
Chapter 10 produces self-powered photodetectors, a nanoelectronics device important for optical communication applications. Single nanobelt to pyro-photonic devices are presented, and different terminology associated with these photodetectors is defined. Quantum confinement in low dimensional materials and energy level in those illustrated. The mechanism of self-powered is also appropriately explained.
Chapter 11 solar cells attracted significant attention as fossil fuel ended and the economy expanded rapidly—nanomaterials and nanostructures are producing better solar cells and increasing the energy harvesting efficiency many folds. Different crystal structures are also illustrated that decide mobility, carrier transport, band gap, and other mechanical properties of any materials—solar cells are classified in first, second, and third generation depending on material composition efficiency and structure,
Chapter 12 introduces the lead-free solar cell based on nanomaterials. Other methods used to harvest energy are also listed and discussed. Why nanomaterials are needed in energy harvesting is also elaborated.
Chapter 13 provides information on how nanomaterials are helpful in energy harvesting. Janus Materials, Van-der-Waals Structures, Chalcogenides Materials, and Organic nanomat- erials are explained. Solar cell classification is done by considering materials that will help readers to select materials for specific solar cell fabrication.
Chapter 14 detailed the hybridization potentiality of the material for energy harvesting and storage. Conversion efficiency, fill factor, short circuit current density,
etc., are illustrated profoundly to provide an in-depth concept of solar cells. Many roots are listed to harvest energy cost-effectively. Many single solar cells connection in a solar panel are also discussed. Emphasis on electron-hole generation at the junction and transport to load. Equivalent circuits of solar cells would further enhance the reader's knowledge.
Editors special thanks to almighty god for giving light to write a book on nanoelectronics devices: design, material, and application to serve scientific society. We sincerely thank all contributors, reviewers, and colleagues who made this project successful. Editor's special thanks go to Mr. BS Sannakashappanavar for his valuable time compiling the book in its present form. Editors also thank their M.Tech and Ph.D. students for their support while editing the book.
SMIEEE, School of Computing and Electrical Engineering (SCEE)
Indian Institute of Technology Mandi (IIT Mandi)
Himachal Pradesh, India
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College (Autonomous) Kanuru
Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh - 520007