Chapter 3

Evaluating SARS-CoV-2 Entry Pathways SARSCoV- 2 Entry Pathways

Muhammad Kalim*, Firasat Hussain*, Hayat Khan, Kashif Rahim, Muhammad Shuaib, Amjad Islam Aqib and Jinbiao Zhan

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are members of the Coronaviridae family that possess positive-sense RNA. These are enveloped viruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and currently coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in humans. Still, there is less information available about the biology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recently, it was suggested that endocytosis mechanism studies and autophagy implicate importance in the viral entrance and an infection. These suggestions ascertain that endocytosis and intracellular trafficking studies have become essential target sites for developing therapeutic approaches. Initially, it was thought that coronaviruses possibly enter the host cell through direct diffusion, evading the membrane barriers. Laterally, it was found that the virus may enter the cell through the mechanism of endocytosis. Entry pathways and endocytosis of other viruses and especially SARS-CoV discussed here may expand the cellular range of viral endocytosis studies, pathogenesis, and infection. It may provide new information for pharmacokinetic studies and vaccine development. This chapter discussed some current advances in our understanding of cellular pathways of SARS-CoV-2 attachment, molecular signaling during virus entry, and trafficking mechanism studies.

Total Pages: 72-97 (26)

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