Editor: Atta-ur-Rahman

Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research -CNS and Neurological Disorders

Volume 3

eBook: US $79 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $158
Printed Copy: US $119
Library License: US $316
ISSN: 2451-8883 (Print)
ISSN: 2214-7527 (Online)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-927-0 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-926-3 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2015
DOI: 10.2174/97816080592631140301

Introduction

Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders is an eBook series that brings updated reviews to readers interested in advances in the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and other nerve disorders. The scope of the eBook series covers a range of topics including the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in neurological and CNS disorders. Reviews presented in the series are mainly focused on clinical and therapeutic aspects of novel drugs intended for these targets. Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders is a valuable resource for pharmaceutical scientists and postgraduate students seeking updated and critical information for developing clinical trials and devising research plans in the field of neurology.

The third volume of this series features six chapters that cover a variety of topics including:

-the role of Potassium transport channels in neuroprotection against tetrahydroprotoberberines

-cannabinoids in cell therapy for CNS disorders

-AMPA Receptor Antagonists

-therapeutic intervention in polyglutamine ataxias

-nutritional therapies in neurology practice

Preface

Neurological disorders are the most common age-related multifactorial set of diseases which deal with the structural, chemical or electrical abnormalities in the nervous system. With the progression and development of these disorders, neurodegeneration prolongs in the brain, aggravating the symptoms. It also has social impacts as it affects both the patients and their families. Several specialists of neurology and clinical neuropsychology are aiming at preventing and curing these disorders through various therapeutic strategies.

The book series “Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – CNS and Neurological Disorders”, is intended to deliver the most noteworthy developments in the field in the form of cutting edge reviews written by professionals. The current volume 3 of this book series is a collection of well written chapters contributed by some of the most prominent researchers in the field. It includes new therapeutic strategies and evidence-based cure and prevention for CNS disorders.

Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPBs) belong to a new class of DA antagonists that have attracted much attention in biochemical and neuropharmacological studies. This group of compounds may have a neuroprotective role by modulation of dopamine (DA) associated diseases as it targets DA receptors in both the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) pathways. Yang et al., in Chapter 1 broadly describe the key role of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels of substantia nigra compacta DA neurons as a novel target for Tetrahydroprotoberberines’ neuroprotection. The recent new findings indicate that targeting at ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in SNc DA neurons may present a novel mechanism underlying THPBs’ neuroprotective effects

Cannabinoids are a group of chemical compounds that target cannabinoid receptors on cells that are responsible to suppress the release of neurotransmitter and were found to modulate neuronal functions including neurogenesis. Chapter 2 by Nabissi et al. highlight the role of CB receptors and CB related receptors to regulate neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiation. This review also discusses the potential stem cell-based therapeutic strategy of cannabinoids and related receptors for CNS neurodegenerative disorders.

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors are known to mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Disruption of this activity has been found in the pathophysiology of a variety of CNS disorders. Hanada et al., in Chapter 3 use the first approved antiepileptic drug, perampanel, as an example of an effective strategy to target AMPA receptors.

PolyQ spinocerebellar ataxias are rare neurodegenerative disorders that involve cerebellar degeneration and dysfunction. Kazachkova and Lima in Chapter 4 comprehensively discuss the common pathological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of polyQ ataxias. This review also summarizes the potential benefits of various pharmacological agents that have been pre-clinically studied.

Studies have shown that ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood intractable epilepsy and that it leads to 30-40% reduction in seizure frequency. The role of modified Atkins diet and Low Glycemic Index treatment is reviewed in Chapter 5 by Gulati and Chakrabarty. This chapter also summarizes certain side effects associated with this dietary therapy. investigations regarding dietary therapy may have an impact in other neurological conditions such as migraine, brain tumour and autism.

Diabetes is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia, especially in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also involves multiple organ dysfunction affecting many organs including the eyes, liver, kidney and heart. The comprehensive chapter 6 by Ian James Martins discusses the importance of anti-aging therapies, including diet, exercise and selective drug therapy that may prevent calorie surplus and activation of calorie sensitive genes Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1), which in turn can avert aging, PD and AD.

The 3rd volume of the book series represents the results of a significant amount of work by eminent researchers in the field. I wish to thank the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, especially Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publication), led by Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications), who deserve all appreciation.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

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