Editor: Atta-ur-Rahman

Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - HIV

Volume 1

eBook: US $100 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $191
Printed Copy: US $141
Library License: US $400
ISSN: 2468-0397 (Print)
ISSN: 2352-5916 (Online)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-897-6 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-60805-896-9 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2015
DOI: 10.2174/97816080589691140101

Introduction

Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – HIV is an eBook series that brings updated reviews to readers interested in learning about advances in the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The scope of the eBook series covers a range of topics including the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of natural and synthetic drugs employed in the treatment of AIDS (including HAART) and resulting complications, and the virology and immunological study of HIV and related viruses. Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – HIV is a valuable resource for pharmaceutical scientists, clinicians and postgraduate students seeking updated and critically important information for developing clinical trials and devising research plans in HIV/AIDS research.

The first volume of this series features 7 chapters that cover a variety of topics including:

  • - Antiretroviral drug development
  • - HIV-1 genomics
  • - HIV drug targets such as ribosomes and HIV Integrase
  • - HAART associated nephrotoxicity

Preface

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), due to which the immune system of the body is badly affected and natural defense mechanisms become compromised. This opens the way for many infectious diseases to attack simultaneously. The treatment of HIV has been directed to decrease mortality and increase the number of clinically secured patients. Volume 1 of the book series "Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - HIV" presents important recent developments in the form of cutting edge reviews written by eminent professionals.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) uses multiple drugs that can act on special viral targets which in turn maintain the functions of the immune system. Chapter 1 by Phillips and Svard summarizes the current status in terms of development of drugs to target various stages of the disease and to refine the use of current drugs.

Viral suppression reduces the function and replication of a virus. It also decreases the amount of virus in the blood. Successful antiretroviral therapy is being used for sustained HIV viral suppression and immunological recuperation in HIV infected patients. Casseb and Arruda in Chapter 2 discuss the advances in the field of antiretroviral agents (ART) that focus on two main types of inhibitors, integrase inhibitors and entry inhibitors.

In the next chapter Brakier-Gingras et al. review the characteristics of the mechanism accounting for HIV-1 frameshifting. They present the different approaches investigated to develop novel anti- HIV-1 drugs interfering with the frameshift, including the high-throughput screening of libraries of chemical compounds with a bicistronic reporter, the use of antisense oligonucleotides binding to the frameshift stimulatory signal, and the selection and modification of chemical compounds that bind to the frameshift stimulatory signal.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a genetic variation in human genome that causes resistance to drugs applied for the management of HIV/AIDS. Astakhova in Chapter 4 comprehensively describes the approaches of current SNP sensing in HIV-1 cDNA and RNA. In addition, several promising technologies that are being used for the diagnosis of HIV are also highlighted in this review.

The nucleosides having unusual branched sugars are known to work as potential antiviral agents. Haraguchi et al. in Chapter 5 describe the new synthetic methods for the synthesis of 1' and 4'- branched-sugar nucleosides. This review also addresses the anti-viral activities, pharmacology and clinical developments (Phase I and Phase IIa) of 4'-ethynylstavudine (4'-Ed4T) that has more potent anti-HIV activity than the parent compound stavudine (d4T).

HIV-integrase is an attractive target for the development of new anti-HIV drugs and has potent antiviral activity. The advancement in effective inhibitors of HIV replication has established the prospective efficiency of antiviral treatment for the cure of AIDS. Ashton and Hann in Chapter 6 have reviewed in detail the recent developments targeting HIV integrase.

HAART is an aggressive treatment used to restrain HIV viral replication and the progression of HIV disease. Ansari et al. in Chapter 7 describe the potential adverse effects of HAART on kidney.

This first volume of the book series represents the results of a considerable amount of work by eminent contributors. I am grateful for their excellent contributions. I also wish to thank the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, especially Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar, led by Mr. Mahmood Alam, Director Bentham Science Publishers, who deserve our appreciation.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

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