Present day mechatronic systems are designed with synergistic integration of mechanics, electronics and computer technology to produce intelligent devices for the purpose of solving real-world problems. Crucial requirements for a mechatronic system are robustness and fault tolerance, i.e. it should have the ability to process incomplete, imprecise or uncertain information. Such systems often have to work in collaborative environments while being subjected to adverse conditions yet adhering to strict safety standards. This e-book explains the fundamentals of designing such systems from the first principles and how to embed intelligence into them. Examples in this volume are not restricted to production lines, but extend to extreme safety based systems such as space and underwater robotics, autonomous transportation systems, aviation systems and medical robots. Moreover, this e-book also presents recent developments in the design of innovative and intelligent mechatronic systems, applied to robotics and transportation systems, thereby providing an authoritative support for researchers and professionals having basic knowledge in mechatronics.