This volume is the 1st in a series of Ebooks that bridges the gap between advances in science and clinical practice in odontology. Recent advances in biology, materials science and tissue engineering are increasingly viewed as being of enormous clinical potential. Stem cell research has opened up the possibility of reconstructing teeth from the association of epithelial and mesanchymal embryonic or adult cells, as an exciting alternative to metal implants. This Ebook will examine the multifunctional nature of a group of proteins known as the amelogenins. Latest studies indicate that this protein regulates the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralization of enamel. In addition, amelogenins organize enamel rods during tooth development, and also aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form the cementum to the root surface of the teeth. The aim of this book is to serve as a bridge between basic biology and biomaterial sciences, and to inform clinicians about the implications of recent advances within these fields for clinical practice.