Editors: T. S. Srivatsan, Jimmy Karloopia, Manoj Gupta

Advanced Materials for Emerging Applications (Innovations, Improvements, Inclusion and Impact)

eBook: US $89 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $179
Printed Copy: US $135
Library License: US $356
ISBN: 978-981-5196-78-8 (Print)
ISBN: 978-981-5196-77-1 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2024
DOI: 10.2174/97898151967711240101

Introduction

Advanced Materials for Emerging Applications is a monograph on emerging materials – materials that have observable differences in physical properties and manufacturing requirements when compared to existing materials and industrial processes. The volume aims to showcase novel materials that can be used in advanced technology and innovative products.

The editors have compiled 17 chapters grouped into 3 sections: 1) Metals and Alloys, 2) Composite materials, and 3) Other materials. Chapters 1-5 discuss recent advances in friction stir welding, suitability of nickel-base shape memory alloys, thermal cycling studies of nickel-based shape memory alloys, nitrogen additions to stainless steel, and the evolution of zirconium alloy. Chapters 6-11 cover topics such as additive manufacturing of metal matrix composites, composite materials for biomedical applications, aluminum and magnesium metal matrix composites, aluminum nanocomposites for automobile applications, enhancing the strength of aluminum-boron carbide composites, and sisal fibers reinforced composites. Lastly, chapters 13-17 explore smart hydrogels, engineered iron-oxide nanomaterials for magnetic hyperthermia, emerging sustainable material technology for fire safety, recent advances in unconventional machining of smart alloys, and critical parameters influencing high-strain rate deformation of materials.

This monograph provides information for a broad readership including material and manufacturing engineers, researchers, students (at undergraduate levels or above) and entrepreneurs interested in manufacturing new products.

Readership

Engineers, researchers, students (at undergraduate levels or above) in materials science, engineering and technology sectors; entrepreneurs interested in manufacturing new products.

Preface

Advanced Materials” can safely be ascribed to those materials that have the potential of offering a useful combination of properties including physical properties, mechanical properties, electrical properties and chemical properties, which make them a potentially viable candidate for selection and use in a spectrum of applications spanning both performance-critical and non-performance-critical. This can be made possible through a healthy synergism of changes in composition, and changes in constituents coupled with the development and implementation of specialized and innovative techniques specific to both processing and synthesis. These materials have gradually grown both in stature and strength and include the following: (i) high value-added metals and their alloy counterparts, (ii) biomaterials, (iii) ceramics, (iv) ceramic-matrix composites, (v) electronic materials, (vi) high entropy alloys, (vii) multi-principal element alloys, (viii) metal-matrix composite materials, (ix) nanomaterials, (x) polymers, (xi) polymer-matrix composites, and (xii) semiconductors. The “emerging” materials and their traditional counterparts tend to differ significantly in terms of mechanical properties, physical properties and chemical properties. The properties offered by the newly developed and/or “emerging” materials can be customized, or tailored, specific to the primary purpose for use and application. Further, production and eventual commercialization of the family of “emerging” materials often tend to differ from the traditional counterparts in terms of the following input(s):

1. Overall importance of the engineered product(s).
2. The importance given to the different steps and related intricacies in the processing sequence (including fabrication), and
3. The economics specific to cost, based entirely on the scale of production.

The potential for an observable change in characteristics of the “emerging” materials and the markets to which they can serve are rapidly gaining in strength, which is made possible through a healthy combination of radically different materials and processes. Both cost benefits and structural advantage over the life of a newly developed material, or “emerging” material, can differ significantly from that of the traditional counterpart, thereby providing a clear indication that the traditional approaches to economic assessment may not be suitable and applicable to the family of “emerging” materials.

There does exist a need to establish meaningful boundaries for an “emerging” material in terms of both the input material and the end-product of interest, i.e.,

1. When in the processing chain or processing sequence can a material be classified as new, novel and “emerging” ?, and
2. When can an “emerging” material be chosen for use for a specific product?

In several cases, the categories of information that is both needed and essential with specific reference to an “emerging” material is the same as for the traditional counterpart. However, the primary focus of the general categories often tends to show observable differences. An example of which is suitability of a specific material for the purpose of selection and use in a specific application. Identifying the need for an adequate amount of information coupled with a thorough analysis of the “emerging” materials does necessitate the need for a fundamental rethinking of why information of various kinds is essential and to whom and for what purpose is the specific information needed, essential and required. The information that is found, established and subsequently collected, categorized and documented should not only be concise but also capable of being updated periodically. It should essentially represent areas of “valued” interest and much desired concern to representatives from both industry and policy makers. Over the years, the gradual development and emergence of new, improved and novel materials did get the much-needed interest, attention, participation and contribution from several researchers. This is evident from the fact that during the last four decades [i.e., 1990 to present], several hundreds of papers have been published in the open literature on aspects specific to the development and emergence of new and improved materials made possible through a healthy synergism of novel changes in material chemistry coupled with an appropriate combination of innovative processing sequences to get the desired material.

The chapters contained in this bound volume attempt to provide an insight into the advances while concurrently addressing the potential areas of observable growth and resultant application of the new and improved materials resulting from a healthy combination of novel compositions and innovative processing techniques that were successfully developed and used for the synthesis of new and improved materials, referred to henceforth through this bound volume as “emerging materials”. The manuscripts, or chapters, chosen for inclusion in this bound volume have been written by authors having varying backgrounds and experience in the domains specific to the synthesis, processing, manufacturing, experimentation, analysis, quantification and even modeling of materials and structures. This has essentially formed the basis of their writing style and technical content of their manuscript chosen for inclusion in this bound volume.

Overall, this bound book contains three sections. Each section, i.e., Section ‘A’, Section ‘B’ and Section ‘C’ contains a few well laid-out technical chapters. In an attempt to make every effort to meet with the needs and requirements of the different readers, each chapter has been written and presented by one or more authors to ensure that it offers a clean, clear, cohesively complete and convincingly compelling presentation and discussion of the intricacies specific to their analysis, observations and resultant interpretations of their research and findings in a convincing manner.

In the first section of the book (Section ‘A’), the focus is on “Metals and Alloys” specific to the family of emerging materials. This section has five chapters. The first chapter [Chapter 1] introduces the interested reader to aspects pertinent to recent advances in friction stir welding of magnesium alloys for the purpose of selection and use in performance specific applications. The second chapter, [i.e., Chapter 2], provides an in-depth analysis, in a cohesively complete and convincing manner, of the suitability of nickel-base shape memory alloys for selection and use in sensing applications. The follow-on chapter, [i.e., Chapter 3] is devoted to presentation and healthy discussion of the intricacies specific to thermal and thermo-mechanical cycling studies on nickel-base shape memory alloys for selection and use in applications in both engineering and medical field. The authors present and adequately discuss all of the relevant and required aspects that are key for the purpose of selection and use of the nickel-base shape memory alloys in the two applications. The fourth chapter [Chapter 4] presents in a well laid out, neatly explained and convincing manner all of the related and relevant intricacies specific to the addition of nitrogen to Type 316L stainless steel with the prime objective of enhancing the performance of the chosen stainless steel at high temperatures when chosen for use in structural applications specific to fast reactors. All of the details and specifics are neatly presented and adequately discussed at all of the relevant and appropriate locations through the entire length of this chapter. The follow-on chapter on pressurized heavy water reactors [i.e., Chapter 5] is thorough, exhaustive and illuminating in detail in a cohesively complete and convincing manner all of the intricacies specific to the evolution of zirconium alloy for use as pressure tubes in pressurized heavy water reactors. All of the findings, observations and interpretations are neatly explained with the aid of appropriate micrographs to include both scanning electron micrographs and transmission electron micrographs. This is certainly a complete, well written and laid-out chapter that offers a wealth of information that is neatly explained using principles of Materials Science and Materials Engineering thereby significantly strengthening technical content of the chapter.

The second section of this book [i.e., Section ‘B’] is focused on “COMPOSITE MATERIALS and includes six desirable and well laid out chapters. The first chapter in this section (i.e., Chapter 6) attempts to provide the ‘interested’ reader with an overview of the desirable highlights specific to the selection and use of biomaterials and implants in orthopedics. Also provided and adequately discussed are key issues, or specifics, relevant to an evaluation of their future. This chapter can safely be categorized to be a healthy refresher to both the knowledgeable reader and ‘learned’ engineer while concurrently providing the novice and inquisitive learner useful information specific to the potential use of biomaterials and implants. In the following Chapter [i.e., Chapter 7], key aspects specific to additive manufacturing of composite materials for use in biomedical applications are well presented and adequately discussed from both a scientific perspective and engineering viewpoint. In the next chapter [i.e., Chapter 8], the theme for presentation and discussion is the key aspects specific to aluminum metal-matrix composites and magnesium metal-matrix composites. The contributing authors devote their attention and focus to providing adequate insight into developing an understanding of the role, importance and contribution of processing influences on corrosion properties of the chosen metal-matrix composites for the purpose of selection and use in environment-sensitive applications. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 9], the contributing authors present their views, following a comprehensive study of aluminum nanocomposites that were developed by additive manufacturing for the purpose of selection and eventual use in both emerging and demanding automotive applications. In this chapter, the contributing authors also provide an adequate discussion of all intricacies specific to understanding processing influences on microstructural development, and microstructural influences in governing mechanical properties and resultant mechanical performance. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 10], the contributing authors clearly present and thoroughly discuss lucidly all the key aspects and intricacies specific to enhancing the strength of aluminum-boron carbide composites to an adequately high level by the addition of magnesium. This enabled making the resultant composite material to be suitable for selection and use in a spectrum of applications in the automobile industry. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 11], an adequate review of processing and fabrication of the sisal fibers-reinforced composite materials is neatly presented and adequately discussed with specific reference to understanding all of the intricacies specific to processing influences on microstructural development and the resultant influence of microstructure in governing mechanical properties and overall mechanical performance. This chapter based on both content and description can be considered to be educative, enlightening, and informative from the standpoint of an analysis and rationalization of the findings. In the same chapter [i.e., Chapter 11] all of the key aspects specific to mechanical performance that result from the development of the engineered composites are well presented and adequately discussed.

The third section of this book [Section ‘C’] is devoted to aspects both related to and relevant to “OTHER MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES. In the opening chapter of this section [i.e., Chapter 12], the contributing authors elegantly present and discuss the numerous benefits that arise from the selection and use of biomaterials and implants in orthopedics. The authors present and adequately discuss the basic principles behind biomaterials and implants and the overall benefits of selecting them for use in orthopedics. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 13], the contributing authors make a comprehensive and complete review of “Smart Hydrogels” with adequate emphasis given to both theory and applications in the domain specific to biomedical sciences. The contributing authors attempt to focus their review on studying and rationalizing the influence of basic theory in governing the selection and use of “Smart Hydrogels” in bioscience-dominated applications. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 14], the contributing authors provide a neat and convincing review with appropriate discussion on the development of engineered iron-oxide-based nanomaterials for magnetic hyper-thermia. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 15], the contributing authors provide a lucid and well-written overview of all of the intricacies specific to emerging and sustainable materials technology with an emphasis on fire safety. They present and adequately discuss the many attributes of the available alloys and materials for the purpose of their selection and use both in existing and emerging fire-safety critical applications. They also list and discuss the key considerations for both the existing materials and the newly developed materials while concurrently providing an overview of the future of the existing materials from the standpoint of eventual commercialization. In the following chapter [i.e., Chapter 16], the authors provide an adequate review specific to recent advances in the unconventional machining of smart alloys in order to ensure their selection and use in critical manufacturing sectors. The following chapter [i.e., Chapter 17] is well presented and appropriately discusses all the relevant aspects specific to critical parameters that exert an influence on the high strain rate deformation of engineering materials. The contributing authors provide a review of the published results from tests conducted on different materials using the pressure bar apparatus.

Overall, this archival monograph devoted to addressing the family of emerging materials provides a background that should enable an interested reader to comprehend with ease the immediate past, the prevailing present and the possible future, or emerging trends, and approaches in the domain specific to the gradual development. Also, the emergence of these materials with an emphasis on innovation is highlighted in an attempt to ensure their applicability for use in a wide spectrum of applications to include both performance-critical and non-performance-critical. Thus, based entirely on the contents included in this bound volume it can very well serve as a single reference book or even as textbook for the following:

1. Students spanning seniors in the undergraduate program of study in the fields of: (i) Materials Science and Engineering, (ii) Mechanical Engineering, and (iii) Manufacturing Engineering/Manufacturing Technology.
2. Fresh graduate students pursuing graduate degrees in: (i) Materials Science and Engineering, (ii) Mechanical Engineering, and (iii) Manufacturing Engineering/ Manufacturing Technology.
3. Researchers working in research laboratories and industries striving to specialize and excel in aspects related to research on materials science and engineering and the resultant development to ensure the emergence of new and improved products.
4. Engineers striving and seeking novel and technically viable materials for the purpose of selection and use in both performance-critical and non-performance-critical applications.

We certainly anticipate this bound volume to be of much interest and value to scientists, engineers, technologists, and even entrepreneurs.

T. S. Srivatsan
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Auburn Science and Engineering Center
The University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325-3903, USA

Jimmy Karloopia
Production and Industrial Engineering Department
Punjab Engineering College
(Deemed to be University)
Sector 12, Chandigarh-160012, India

&

Manoj Gupta
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National University of Singapore [NUS]
Singapore 117576, Singapore