Author: Alandra Kahl

### Introductory Statistics

eBook: US \$59 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US \$101
Printed Copy: US \$71
Library License: US \$236
ISBN: 978-981-5123-14-2 (Print)
ISBN: 978-981-5123-13-5 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2023
DOI: 10.2174/97898151231351230101

#### Introduction

This textbook is a primer for students on statistics. It covers basic statistical operations, an introduction to probability, distributions and regression. The book is divided into a series of 10 chapters covering a basic introduction to common topics for beginners.

The goal of the book is to provide a sufficient understanding of how to organize and summarize datasets through descriptive and inferential statistics for good decision-making. A chapter on ethics also informs readers about best practices for using statistics in research and analysis.

Topics covered:

1. Introduction to Statistics

2. Summarizing and Graphing

3. Basic Concepts of Probability

4. Discrete Random Variables

5. Continuous Random Variables

6. Sampling Distributions

7. Estimation

8. Hypothesis Testing

9. Correlation and Regression

10. Ethics

Audience:

Students and professionals who require a basic understanding of statistics

# Preface

Statistics is a complex and multi-faceted field that is relevant to many disciplines including business, science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Statistical analysis and research is critical to understanding data sets, compiling and analyzing scientific results and presenting findings. Without statistics, research would grind to a halt for lack of support and discourse regarding presentation of results. We rely on statistics and analysis to make sense of patterns, nuances and trends in all aspects of science.

This volume presents a brief but thorough overview of common statistical measurements, techniques and aspects. It discusses methods as well as areas of presentation and discourse. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the field and relevant data types and sample data. Chapter 2 highlights summarizing and graphing, including relevant charts such as histograms, box plots, and pie charts. Chapter 3 discusses the basic concepts of probability by discourse on sample events, sample spaces, intersections, unions and complements. Chapter 3 also encompasses conditional probability and independent events as well as basic principles and rules. Chapter 4 targets random variables, including discrete values and binomial distributions. Chapter 5 summarizes continuous random variables as well as the normal distribution. Chapter 6 surveys sampling distributions, the sample mean and the central limit theorem. Chapter 7 holds forth on estimation, including intervals of confidence and the margin of error. Chapter 8 covers hypothesis testing as well as the t-test and z- test. Chapter 9 speaks about the important topics of correlation and regression. Chapter 10 briefly examines the ethics associated with statistics, including the tenets of ethical conduct for those in the discipline.

In short, this book presents a brief scholarly introduction to the chief topics of interest in statistics. It is hoped that this volume will provide a better understanding and reference for those interested in the field as well as the greater scientific community.

I am grateful for the timely efforts of the editorial personnel, particularly Mrs. Humaira Hashmi (Editorial Manager Publications) and Mrs. Fariya Zulfiqar (Manager Publications).

Not applicable.

#### CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

#### ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Declared none.

Alandra Kahl
Department of Environmental Engineering
Penn State Greater Allegheny
McKeesport, Pennsylvania
USA