The book ‘Bio-inspired Nanotechnology’, exploring recent breakthroughs of exciting novelties finding inter-and cross-multidisciplinary sciences is based on micro- to nanofabrication of bio-engineered nanomaterials, spectroscopic characterization, and promising avenues of eco-friendly products as well as sustainable potential applications at the industrial scale. This book comprises of nine significant chapters written in diverse fields of study on green chemistry, nanotechnology, advanced materials, nano-biotechnology as well as next-generation biomedical technology.
For the last several decades, there have been many projections on the future depletion of self-assembly of structural proteins that produce complex, hierarchical materials that exhibit a unique combination of mechanical, chemical, and transport properties. This controlled process covers dimensions ranging from the nano- to the macroscale. Such materials are desirable to synthesize integrated and adaptive materials and systems development of renewable energy technologies. On a different frontier, the growth and manipulation of materials on the nanometer scale have progressed at a fast pace. Selected recent and significant advances in the development of nanomaterials applications are reviewed in the entire book, and special emphasis is given to the investigations in Chapter 1 emphasizing an overview of supramolecular systems that are utilized as an effective technique in nanomanufacturing which enhances solubility, modification of surface properties, bioconjugation of nanoparticles fabrication which is the study of variations in non-covalent interaction to generate a nanostructural system with controlled characteristics. Chapter 2 deals with the significant fabrication of novel bio-nanocomposites by simple, cost-effective pathways using biocompatible, environmentally friendly zeolite and cellulose. The nanocomposites are water stable and have increased efficiency for adsorption. Moreover, these nanocomposites are more suitable for both Anionic and Cationic dyes. Chapter 3 illustrates polymer nanocomposites which are excellent materials with superior and exotic properties for biomedical applications. This chapter gives an overview of the major polymer-based composites reinforced with nanomaterials, their characteristics, fabrication techniques, and suitability in the biomedical field. The chapter gives an idea about research gaps in the material design and development, drawbacks, and challenges in in-vivo biomedical applications beneficial to researchers by giving an insight into novel materials suitable for further utilization in the biomedical era. Chapter 4 focuses on the conventional strategies based on nanotechnology which are being adopted in the biomedical field but having several disadvantages like severe side effects, toxicity, etc. From a future perspective, polymer nanocomposites have great potential in biomedical fields like tissue engineering, bone replacement or repair, dental applications and controlled drug delivery. The potential of biodegradable polymers in such applications is still under investigation. In the current scenario, polymer nanocomposites offer the combined merits of nanotechnology and the pros of biocompatibility and biodegradability to achieve the desired objective in biomedical applications. Chapter 5 illustrates modern-day nanomaterials of various kinds and morphologies and diverse methods of synthesizing them under top-down and bottom-up approaches are also discussed. Contributions of nanomaterials in some emerging technologies and industry sectors like the food industry, agricultural science, medicinal science and the power sector have been discussed. The need for awareness and risk management to combat the health impact of ‘nanotoxicity’ arising due to the rapid commercialization of nanomaterials is also mentioned. Also, Chapter 6 discusses the current discoveries in graphene-based materials in a variety of sectors as well as nanotechnology due to its hexagonal lattice and carbon atom arrangement. While, graphene nanosheets are excellent for usage as a 2D endorsement for applications of other nano-objects. Graphene-based nanocomposites are getting prominence in environmental and energy concerns in a variety of sectors. Chapter 7 deals with applications of nanotechnology in medicine which is relatively new, yet having a profound worldwide impact on biomedical research and public health. Nanomaterials possess several attractive features that permit them to perform physiological tasks such as multicolor imaging, identification of medical disorders, early diagnosis of diseases, delivery of therapeutics to target-specific organs, effective treatment of infections, increased bioavailability of drugs, and decreased side effects. Nanomedicine offers enormous opportunities in the near future and global efforts are underway to develop advanced smart nanomedical systems. Chapter 8 presents in-depth studies on the agricultural domain with which human civilization started and will carry on for survival. Since the growing population demands more resources from lesser area and time, bioinspired nanotechnology interventions like nanocarriers for fertilizer and pesticide delivery, soil and climate sensors and plant nanobionics to detect pollutants are the need of the hour. The strategies also have to be sustainable, in line with the UN SDGs as recalcitrant compounds have already posed significant damage to our planet. However, Chapter 9 explores the scenario of the utility of graphene nanotechnology that could be easily understood by its wide range of applications starting from energy storage devices to biomedical devices. Not only these, but graphene technology also provides purified water and air owing to its excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, like any other technology, graphene nanotechnology has its limitations; advanced research is going on to overcome this. In the future, multifunctional graphene-based nanostructures with affordable cost will reach out to the common people. Remarkable strategies to employ assemblies of metal nanoparticles, organic-inorganic hybrid composite matrix, and carbon nanostructures in bioengineering conversion schemes are also illustrated in this book.
Thus, it may be clear to all readers that nanotechnology-enabled bio-inspired nanotechnologies are starting to scale up dramatically. As they become mature and cost-effective in the decades to come, biomaterials could eventually replace the traditional, environmental-unfriendly, fossils and improve the performance of the biomedical industry through the utilization of nanocatalysts in manufacturing materials with high durability. This book provides an overview of key current developments that direct future research attempts toward the utilization of such tailored nanostructures or hybrid nano assemblies will play an essential role in achieving the desired goal of cheap and efficient production.
The book contains information with evidence from academicians, scientists, scholars, and engineers. It illustrates the wide-ranging interest in these areas and provides a background to the chapters, which address the novel synthesis of high-yield nanomaterials and their biomaterials, graphene, polymeric nanomaterials, green nanomaterials, green polyester, nano-biotechnology, interesting response characteristics of exclusive spectroscopic investigation as well as extensive electron microscopic study, health care, environmental and plant biology, social, ethical, and regulatory implications of various aspects of green nanotechnologies based leading functional nanomaterials. Liable appropriate regulation alongside the topics indicates that the commercial production of manufactured novel composite materials can be realized. Furthermore, many brilliant discoveries and explorations are highlighted in the entire book that can modulate spectroscopic performances with technical excellence in the inter-and cross-multidisciplinary research of high competence.
Lastly, I would like to express my overwhelming gratitude to all the authors/co-editor for their excellent research contributions as well as peer-review, editing throughout this book. I would like to thank the entire team of Bentham Science Publishers for their efficient handling of this book at all harder stages of its publication. I am pretty sure and confident too that within a short interval, the book will be more popular in worldwide universities/institutes libraries and hopefully will achieve the highest citation in the coming years.
University Centre for Research and Development (UCRD)
Department of Physics
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Lucknow, U.P., India