Solid-state and Microelectronics technology attempts to fill the gap between a
general solid-state physics book and real-life application by providing detailed
explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport and optical properties of
semiconductors. The approach is physical and instinctive rather than prescribed.
The enhanced application of semiconductors to the different electronic industries
helped to explore various aspects of microelectronics technology which was made
possible with the availability of solid-state devices known for their versatile
This technological advancement also demanded the proper understanding of new
device physics as the properties of materials alters significantly at this reduced
dimension. These dimensions are comparable to the electron wavelength of
motion, and hence the device characteristics are governed by the confinement of
the electron wave function, commonly referred to as the quantum confinement
For the purpose of commercialization, integration of different electronic
components on the same platform is very much essential to develop an integrated
device using a standard IC fabrication process. Thus, low power, low cost, highly
sensitive and miniaturized electronic system on chip using silicon is possible. This
book consists of thirteen chapters.
The most apparent package for PART I consists of chapter 1 to 6, and PART II
consists of chapter 7 to 12. The goal was to give a brief idea about the
microfabrication technology needed to fabricate solid-state devices through part
Chapter 1 provides an introduction to Semiconductor Physics fundamentals.
Basic quantum mechanics have been introduced in order to explain the
fundamental properties of semiconducting materials. In this context,
Sommerfeld’s free electron theory has been considered. Although this model
corroborates with a few experimental observations, but can’t differentiate between
semiconductors, insulators and metal. Then Kronig – Penney, who successfully
explains the deviation on the basis of the band concept, has been considered.
Followed by Kronig – Penney model, Bloch’s theory has been introduced, and it
well explains the origin of conduction and valence bands. From this concept,
different types of semiconducting materials, e.g., direct and indirect band gap
semiconductors, n- and p-type semiconductors, etc., have emerged. Here, properties of charge carriers, such as their charge, effective mass, etc., have also
been discussed. Knowing these parameters, conductivity expression and related
scattering phenomena influencing conductivity have been briefly elaborated.
Chapter 2 briefly discusses the fundamentals of the p – n junction, the electric
field across the junction, equilibrium carrier concentration on each side, etc.
Expression of built-in potential in terms of carrier density has been derived.
Magnitudes of the current under zero, forward, and reverse biased conditions have
been calculated. Unlike a resistor, p – n junction corresponds to static, dynamic
and average ac resistance, and they have been briefly discussed here along with
protocol to examine their values. These p – n junctions also exhibit capacitance,
namely transition capacitance and diffusion capacitance. Herein, these parameters
and their relevance in terms of current-voltage characteristics of p – n junction
and applicational aspects, have been elaborated.
Chapter 3 discusses metal-semiconductor contacts. Schottky and Ohmic contact
with a detailed band diagram has been presented. I-V characteristics are also
given to interpret the contact behaviour.
Chapter 4 deals with JFET and its I-V characteristics expressed in a detailed
manner with necessary equations. JFET parameters are another important factor to
understand the characteristics of it which have been mentioned. Small signal
model of JFET illustrated in a very lucid manner.
Chapter 5 discusses the fabrication of MOSFET and its principle operations
based on the concept of metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Further the
discussion is focused on the details mathematical modelling of MOS capacitors,
device characteristics and the process of channel length modulation and its
application. The conversation is continuing on the concept of CMOS technology
and its combination with the transistor – the BiCMOS technology.
Chapter 6 discusses advanced semiconductor devices where Semiconductor
resistivity can be changed by the incorporation of an electric or magnetic field, by
revelation to light or heat, or by mechanical distortion. The doping of silicon
significantly modulates the characteristics of semiconductors to have different
types of devices like LED, Tunnel diode, Solar cells and many more, which have
been discussed in this section.
Chapter 7 introduces silicon as an electronic material for microelectronic device
fabrication. It discusses, in-depth, the various aspects of crystalline silicon, wafer manufacturing and their identification techniques. Finally, the various steps
involved in a microfabrication process are also discussed. From this chapter, the
readers are expected to learn how to process a silicon wafer successfully and
proceed with customized device fabrication.
Chapter 8 introduces the readers to the oxidation process focusing on silicon. It
establishes the importance of oxidation in a silicon process and discusses in depth
the thermal oxidation process and its growth mechanism. Towards the end, a
detailed discussion of the oxide film characterization and its properties has been
provided. After reading this chapter, the readers are expected to have a sound
knowledge of the oxidation process as a whole and its significance in the silicon
Chapter 9 introduces the readers to the diffusion process which is used for
doping intrinsic silicon. It discusses in depth Fick’s Law of diffusion and the
different types of diffusion that may be observed. Towards the later part of the
chapter, the process of diffusion in semiconductors is discussed in detail,
explaining the diffusion-assisted doping process commonly employed for
semiconductors, especially silicon.
Chapter 10 discusses in depth the ion implantation process of silicon processing
technology. The chapter gives an in-depth insight into various aspects of the ion
implantation process and ion-implanted silicon systems commonly encountered in
a silicon process. The readers, after reading this chapter, will have a sound
understanding of the ion implantation process and its various aspects.
Chapter 11 represents the concept of MEMS technology. Fabrication technique,
including bulk and surface micromachining with CMOS compatibility issues, has
been elaborated. The most important etch-stop techniques have also been
elaborated in this chapter.
Chapter 12 provides the idea about photo-resist, and its properties. It also
narrates some advanced lithographic techniques, including the most common one,
Electronics & Communication Engineering,
Guru Nanak Institute of Technology,
Kolkata, West Bengal,
Chandan Kumar Ghosh
Department of Material Science and Technology,
School of Materials Science & Nanotechnology,
Kolkata, West Bengal
Electrical Engineering Department,
Abhijit Kumar Pal
Applied Electronics and Instrumentation,
Future Institute of Engineering and Management,
Kolkata, West Bengal,