Editors: Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski, Jorge Felipe Ramírez León, Anthony Yeung, Hyeun-Sung Kim, Xifeng Zhang, Gun Choi, Stefan Hellinger, Álvaro Dowling

Series Title: Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery

Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery - Advanced Technologies

Volume 3

eBook: US $99 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $168
Printed Copy: US $119
Library License: US $396
ISSN: 2810-9538 (Print)
ISSN: 2810-952X (Online)
ISBN: 978-981-5051-55-1 (Print)
ISBN: 978-981-5051-54-4 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2022
DOI: 10.2174/97898150515441220301


Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery brings the reader the most up-to-date information on the endoscopy of the spine. Key opinion leaders from around the world have come together to present the clinical evidence behind their competitive endoscopic spinal surgery protocols. Chapters in the series cover a range of aspects of spine surgery including spinal pain generators, preoperative workup with modern independent predictors of favorable clinical outcomes with endoscopy, anesthesia in an outpatient setting, management of complications, and a fresh look at technology advances in a historical context. The reader will have a first-row seat during the illustrative discussions of expanded surgical indications from herniated disc to more complex clinical problems, including stenosis, instability, and deformity in patients with advanced degenerative disease of the human spine. Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery is divided into three volumes: Cervical Spine, Lumbar Spine, and Advanced Technologies to capture an accurate snapshot in time of this fast-moving field. It is intended as a comprehensive go-to reference text for surgeons in graduate residency and postgraduate fellowship training programs and for practicing spine surgeons interested in looking for the scientific foundation for expanding their clinical practice towards endoscopic surgery.

This volume (Advanced Technologies) covers the following endoscopic spine surgery topics in 19 detailed chapters: endoscopic intradiscal therapy and foraminoplasty, evidence based medicine in spine surgery, artificial intelligence for spine surgery, postoperative management, transforaminal lumbar endoscopy and associated complications, laser applications in full endoscopy of the spine, high frequency surgery for the treatment of herniated discs, lumbar MRI, cost and maintenance management of endoscopic spine systems, regenerative medicine, interbody fusion, endoscopic intravertebral canal decompression after spinal fracture, treatment of lumbar tuberculosis, treatment of degenerative scoliosis, treatment of thoracic meningioma with spinal canal decompression, and cervical endoscopic unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (CE-ULBD).

Audience: Postgraduate residents and fellows in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, general surgery and health professionals in pain management clinics.


Spinal endoscopy is a technology-driven subspecialty of spinal surgery. The increased clinical traction and acceptance of minimally invasive endoscopic spinal surgery techniques result in successful technology transfers from other industries. Image quality in endoscopy is perceived by magnification, depth of field, resolution, color truth, and high image contrast, as well as low distortion and homogeneous illumination up to the edge of the image. The introduction of HD technology in 2005 to the general consumer market forced endoscope manufacturers to develop endoscopes that provided optimized image quality for the HD Video chain. Some of these technological advancements in 2000 coincided with the introduction of the endoscope into transforaminal spinal surgery. Newer clinical indications for endoscopic spine surgery are aimed to replace traditional translaminar surgeries. This expansion of the endoscopic spinal surgery platform is fueled by technology transfers from the space-, military- or consumer sector developments in the area of illumination, image quality, and high-definition video quality. It also hinges on the development of more durable and stress-resistant spinal endoscopes requiring continued expert surgeon input. Illustrating the application of these technological advancements in endoscopic spine surgery is at the heart of the third volume of the Bentham Series entitled “Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery.”

The editors have come together to develop a multi-authored and clinically focused medical monograph entitled Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery: Advanced Technologies to give the reader a most up-to-date snapshot of the current and future technology advances in spinal endoscopy. The publication is intended for Orthopedic Spine & Neurosurgeons interested in treating common painful conditions of the spine with minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. A wide array of highly timely and clinically relevant topics have been assembled for this purpose. They range from the historical review of intradiscal therapies and foraminoplasty techniques, the discussion of the disruptive approach to personalized pain generator-oriented spine care versus population-based evidenced-based treatment strategies in context with modern clinical classification systems, the application of lasers, radiofrequency, and regenerative medicine strategies, the use of artificial intelligence and decision algorithms employed in the interpretation of advanced imaging studies to more accurately identify pain generators and their management with denervation and surgical strategies, the management of postoperative sequelae and complications, the indications for efficacious use of interspinous implants and fusion techniques, to the cost of implementing and maintaining a clinical endoscopic spine care program and advanced endoscopic technique for the most challenging clinical problems.

Future advances in clinical protocols will likely be driven by higher image quality standards that may provide the basis for artificial intelligence applications in image recognition, robotics, integration and automatization of surgical processes. Contemporary Endoscopic Spine Surgery: Adavanced Technologies was written with these trends in mind. The editors hope that the readers will find it an informative knowledge resource they will continue to revert to when implementing a lumbar endoscopic spinal surgery program in their practice setting.

Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Center for Advanced Spine Care of Southern Arizona
Surgical Institute of Tucson
Tucson, AZ

Departmemt of Orthopaedics
Fundación Universitaria Sanitas
Bogotá, D.C.

Department of Orthopedics at Hospital Universitário Gaffree
Guinle Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro

Jorge Felipe Ramírez León
Fundación Universitaria Sanitas
Clínica Reina Sofía – Clínica Colsanitas
Centro de Columna – Cirugía Mínima Invasiva
Bogotá, D.C.

Anthony Yeung
University of New Mexico
School of Medicine
New Mexico