Author: Eliade Stefanescu

Open Quantum Physics and Environmental Heat Conversion into Usable Energy

Volume 3

eBook: US $49 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $83
Printed Copy: US $59
Library License: US $196
ISSN: 2542-5064 (Print)
ISSN: 2542-5072 (Online)
ISBN: 978-981-5051-10-0 (Print)
ISBN: 978-981-5051-09-4 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2022
DOI: 10.2174/97898150510941220301


This volume presents a clear understanding of the quantum mechanics of particles with reference to the current understanding of theory of relativity, gravitation, and electromagnetism, including essential phenomena as spin, the graviton spin, black holes, and the quantum particle states in the extreme conditions of a black hole formation, and of the Schwarzschild boundary. The reader is introduced to the recent theory of the quantum particle dynamics as a distribution of matter propagating with the velocity of the waves. The text describes this distribution by a Fourier space-time series expansion, which we call the wave function. The subsequent chapters delve into the mechanics of quantum particles in a gravitational field, charged particles in a gravitational field and finally, the least action and matter-field dynamics in a gravitational field. The book also explains important rules in quantum mechanics such as the mass quantization rule, Dirac’s formulation of the general theory of relativity, electromagnetic field theory, quantum particle interactions and more. The volume serves as a concise introduction to the complex topic of quantum particle mechanics for scholars involved in advanced physics courses.

Audience: Students and teachers interested in theoretical physics, and specific, quantum particle mechanics within a relativistic framework.


In the first two volumes, we approached the openness of a physical system, from coupling to a complex dissipative environment of Fermions, Bosons, and a free electromagnetic field. Essentially, the open description of a system of interest starts with the dynamics of the total system, including the environment, and consists of the reduction of the system dynamics on the environmental coordinates to dissipative dynamics, with coefficients depending on the coupling matrix elements, the densities of the environmental states, and the occupation probabilities of these states, as a function of temperature. Various empirical descriptions of coupling with the environment violated fundamental principles and the positivity of the density matrix. A positive application of the dissipative dynamics was discovered in the seventies by Lindblad, but Lindblad's master equation became a popular tool, especially in nuclear physics, only in the eighties, when Sandulescu and Scutaru applied this equation to deep inelastic collisions of heavy ions. However, this equation, much used today, is very unsatisfactory, being a phenomenological one, with terms for all the system operators, with unspecified dissipation coefficients. Consequently, in the nineties, and the early 2000s, I obtained master equations for Fermions, Bosons, and a coherent electromagnetic field, with explicit microscopic coefficients for the dissipative coupling with other Fermions, Bosons, and the free electromagnetic field, and terms for non-Markovian effects. Based on these equations, I showed that the entropy of a matter-field system could spontaneously decrease, not only increase as it is asserted by the second law of thermodynamics, for molecular systems. In this framework, I invented a semiconductor device converting environmental heat into usable energy. A theoretical description of this device, and of the quantum mechanical and statistical fundamentals are the objects of the first two volumes. However, in the approach of these fundamentals, I found that a general solution of the Schrödinger equation in the coordinate space does not correctly describe the particle dynamics, according to the Hamilton equations. A correct description is obtained only with propagation wave functions when the Hamiltonian of the time-dependent phase is replaced by the Lagrangian. In this volume, with the relativistic Lagrangian, for a quantum particle, I obtain a more physical description, as an invariant quantity of matter propagating in space, with the mass determined by the dynamic characteristics of the matter density. Quantum mechanics is obtained from the general theory of relativity. I use the formalism of Dirac, who was the big architect of quantum mechanics, and the general theory of relativity. In the whole universe, where it is curved on other dimensions, I regard our four-dimensional physical universe to be an open system, describing the inertial-gravitational dynamics.

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Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no affiliation with any organization or entity from a financial point of view in the subject matter or materials discussed in this book.


Declared none.

Eliade Stefanescu
Center of Advanced Studies in Physics of the Romanian Academy,
Academy of Romanian Scientists