Nanoscience and nanotechnology have emerged out as unique and distinct disciplines in the contemporary field of science and engineering. The size-dependent phenomena of materials when their dimension is reduced below 100nm can be dealt with in Nanoscience. On the other hand, nanotechnology plays an important role in the creation and manipulation of materials at the nanometre scale, either by scaling up from single groups of atoms or by refining or reducing bulk materials. The second edition of the book “Advanced Materials and Nanosystems” covers the advancement of bulk to nanomaterials and their implication in the development of new technology. This book gives a solid understanding regarding the variation of the physical properties of the materials while reducing sizes from bulk to nanoscale. The book helps to give information on the various effects of nanomaterials as bio-sensors, bio-agent, nanocatalysts, nano-robot, etc. The book also covers the various physical, chemical and hybrid methods of nanomaterial synthesis and nanofabrication as well as advanced characterization techniques.
This book includes chapters from all fields of sciences such as; Nanosciences, Physical sciences, Chemical Sciences, Biosciences, Material Sciences, Engineering sciences etc., is an integrated, multidisciplinary edited book. This book is an amalgamation of diverse chapters from different trending fields from various contributing authors. All the contributing authors systematically discuss the chemistry, physics, and biology etc., aspects of nanoscience, providing a complete picture of the challenges, opportunities, and inspirations posed by each facet before giving a brief glimpse at nanoscience in action: nanotechnology. All the contributing chapters give an overview of the latest research work in their respective field, which has importance in our daily lives. This book highlighted the latest development and the significant role of different new materials for various applications. Here is a brief introduction to each chapter.
Chapter 1, Mandal et al., elucidated the recent advancement of nanotechnology from a human health perspective. They have discussed the crucial points in this chapter and give a brief review of the merit and demerit of nanoparticles in human health. The development of smart nano molecules and nanodevices using molecular and supra-molecular would be a blessing for medical sciences. The nanoparticles like silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, etc. are proved to be novel nanoparticles for their applications in biomedicine. While they have also highlighted the adverse effects, risk factors on the human body.
Chapter 2, discussed the optimised characteristics of SWIRL (Short Wave Infra-Red Light) of AlGaAs/GaAs heterogeneous type nanostructure under various GRINSLs (Graded Refractive Index Nano Scale Layers) in advanced bio-based nanotechnological systems. They reported the enhanced performances of SWIRL gain with wavelengths of photons for various GRINSLs. This behaviour can be integrated into medical devices for the treatment of wound, pain and various types of sensitive skin diseases by using the FONSCs (Fibre Optic Nano Scale Cables) through the TIRPs (Total Internal Reflection Processes) without any attenuation in dB/Km due to diminished scattering, dispersion and absorptions in the nanotechnological biosciences and medical sciences. Moreover, SWIRL of wavelength ~ 830 nm has provided the most fabulous role in the proper controlling of inflammation, edema as well as infections of various bacteria in advanced bio-based nanotechnological systems.
Chapter 3, this chapter gives the theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure of the half-Heusler alloys ScAuSn, LuAuSn and their Superlattice using density functional theory (DFT) within the full-potential linearized augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW). They have discussed the inefficiency of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in opening the electronic bandgap. While they report that Trans and Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (TB-mBJ) is more appropriate for calculating the electronic bandgap. Their results revealed that LuAuSn and ScAuSn are indirect bandgap semiconductors while their superlattice is a direct bandgap semiconductor.
Chapter 4, overview the importance of nanotechnology and claim to be a multidisciplinary approach contribution from Physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists, engineers, and computer scientists. In this chapter, they have discussed the evolving and growing interest in nanotechnology, and its implication in size scale technology to construct a computer that is smaller, faster, and more trustworthy. They prepared nanoparticles from the top-down and bottom-up approaches to have direct impact on the current computer design and architecture.
Chapter 5, herein the authors have deposited the amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx:H) and silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) on the low substrate at 250oC -300oC by the chemical Vapour deposition technique. They have estimated the interface charge density (Dit) and fixed charge density (Qf) using a high frequency (1 MHz) capacitance-voltage measurement on Metal-Insulator–Silicon structure (CV-MIS). They reported the reduction of the surface recombination velocity due to low interface charge density (Dit). An improved efficiency and short circuit current has been reported for a-SiOx:H and a-SiNx:H on the front surface of c-Si solar cells.
Chapter 6, deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles. This chapter reports the gradual development in the synthesis techniques from the bulk to nanoparticles synthesis. All types of synthesis methods have been discussed here. They found that various bottom-up and top-down approaches are appropriate for the commercial production of nanoparticles. They summarize the basic principle of solid phase, vapour phase and liquid phase synthetic techniques in detail with schematic setup. They focus on the matrix of the activated carbon for nanocomposites synthesis, with large surface area and porosity, offer vivid applications in various fields such as environmental remediation as adsorbents, suitable sorbents in analytical determination of organics, targeted drug delivery, diagnostic agents, fuel cells and sensors, to name a few.
Chapter 7 is contributed by S. Rai, and reported the effect of Nanostructure-materials on the optical properties of some rare-earth ions (Eu3+, Sm3+ & Tb3+) doped in the silica matrix. Nanoparticles of CdS incorporating in Rare Earth doped silica xerogel (RE3+:SiO2) matrix have been prepared by sol-gel method. The prepared materials have been characterized by physical and optical techniques, such as XRD, SEM, TEM and Photoluminescence (PL) in which he has reported the particle size of 8 nm and an average particle dimension of 5 nm. He has observed the enhanced luminescence in rare-earth (RE) ions in the presence of CdS NPs in RE3+:SiO2 matrix. A twenty time more intense dominating orange peaks (616 nm) from the characteristic peak of Eu3+ ions are observed for CdS/Eu3+:SiO2 matrix compared to the sample without CdS NPs.
Chapter 8, overviews a description of the Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5 based permanent magnet nanomaterials. The Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5 nanoparticles have been studied using the first principle approach opting for the self-predictable maximum capacity linearized increased plane wave (FPLAPW) strategy as programed in the WIEN2K code. The magnetic moment of BCC Fe and HCP Nd are 2.27µB and 2.65µB, respectively.
Chapter 9, detailed a comparative study on visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of MWCNTs decorated sulfide-based (ZnS & CdS) nano photocatalysts. ZnS and CdS of different sizes show photocatalytic activities in the visible region due to their appropriate energy bandgap (Eg). They report the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) intercalated sulfide-based photocatalysts like ZnS/MWCNTs and CdS/MWCNTs composites enhance photocatalytic response in comparison to ZnS and CdS NCs.
Chapter 10, discusses the Organic solar cells and their working principle. Here, the authors have reported the new efficient type of solar cell and photovoltaic energy technology. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) consisting of a mixture of a conjugated donor polymer with a fullerene acceptor are considered a promising approach. They are attractive owing to their mechanical flexibility, lightweight, low cost and environmentally friendly solar cells with highly tunable electrical and chemical properties. This chapter highlights the fundamental Physics of OSCs, working mechanism, novel materials, device architectures, strategies to improve the stability of OSCs and the current status of BHJ solar cells with all critical aspects considered important to understand.
Chapter 11, final chapter which presents synthesis and characterization of Nd2O3 doped lithium borosilicate glasses from melt-quench technique. Electrical conductivity of produced samples was tested in frequency band of 2mHz to 20MHz at 423K to 673K, using Impedance Analyser. From this study it has been reported that conduction is based on the composition and not on the temperature. In the temperature band, 423-673 K, the variance of the dielectric loss (Tan δ), dielectric constant (ε’) and ac conductivity (σ’) with frequency was measured using impedance spectroscopy and discussed at length.
Chapter 12, Thomas et al., shows the comprehensive quantum mechanical study of structural features, reactivity, molecular properties characteristics of capmatinib. They reported that Capmatinib is an effective medicine to fight lung cancer. They used molecular modelling using DFT and TD-DFT methods using B3LYP/CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level to study the structure, reactivity and other Physico-chemical properties of this compound.
The main goal of the compilation of this edited book was to explain the underlying physics ideas, assumptions often seen in the nano literature to the learner. This book tried to demonstrate and motivate these notions by inviting all the informative chapters from enthusiastic scholars and scientists. The objective is to give the readers a foundation that will allow them to critically examine and perhaps contribute to the growing area of material sciences. It is a dream that this book will one day be turned into an introductory text for many.
Dibya Prakash Rai
Department of Physics
Pachhunga University College
Mizoram University, Aizawl