Emerging Trends in Veterinary Virology presents some emerging aspects and general principles in the field of veterinary virology. Recently, new advances in molecular biology, virology, biochemistry and structural biology have enabled the field of veterinary virology to make many exciting discoveries that have, in some cases, conceptually revolutionized our understanding of the topic. The book will provide useful information to virologists, microbiologists, students, and researchers.
Emerging infectious diseases are causing outbreaks with loss of human and animal lives and may have huge economic and societal impacts. There may be both natural and anthropogenic drivers behind the emergence of viral diseases. Zoonotic diseases are more commonly emerging, and the inborn tendency of RNA viruses to mutate makes these over-represented among the emerging diseases. A thorough understanding of the molecular biology, immunology, and pathogenesis of viruses that cause diseases is necessary for the rationale design of vaccines and diagnostics to control diseases.
In this book, eleven chapters are showcased to illustrate some of the most important findings made in the field of veterinary virology. Our first chapter starts with discussing viral evolution and moves towards discussing global changes and the impact on diseases, with a particular focus on vector-borne viruses. The second chapter is Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), an economically important respiratory disease of chickens that is prevalent throughout the world.
The third chapter covers avian leukosis viruses, which are the ancient RNA viruses that are notorious for causing oncogenesis in birds, especially in poultry. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the various aspects of ALV biology as well as to provide a comprehensive account of emerging trends in research for its diagnosis as well as control.
Our next chapter covers a neglected area; rabies lyssavirus (RABV) is the chief lyssavirus involved in rabies, a 100% lethal zoonotic acute encephalitis. Cats, like other mammals, are susceptible to the disease, and this is an emerging concern regarding feline health and Public Health as rabid cats might transmit the disease to humans. The next chapter covers an emerging virus, Bovine Leukemia, which is becoming a zoonotic threat.
Another chapter covers Hendra, which is a newly emerged disease of horses and humans. Paramyxoviridae family of viruses infect numerous species but with host specificity. Hendra virus, earlier called Horse morbillivirus, cause disease in horses but also have zoonotic importance.
The next chapter covers the West Nile virus (WNV), in which infected horses suffer from lethargy and nervous disorder. WNV causes West Nile virus disease in humans, which is characterized by skin rash, fever, vomiting, and sometimes neurological disorder.
Chapter 10 covers SARC-CoV and MERS-CoV, which belong to the group of betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae, the largest of RNA viruses. First emerged from China in 2003, it spread to other parts of the world in the following year. MERS-CoV is closely related to SARS and was reported in 2013 with 30-90% fatality.
The book ends with an updated chapter on advances in rabies research from its epidemiology, transmission, immunopathology, clinical disease, patient management and prophylaxis measures. This chapter will also discuss the technical framework for rabies control through advanced strategies of vaccination, surveillance, laboratory diagnosis, animal movement monitoring and research. The last chapter is linked to emerging potential zoonotic issues related to virology and contains key information in detail.
National Veterinary Laboratory
Jonas Johansson Wensman
National Veterinary Institute
Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Department of Clinical Sciences