Marine Pollution: Current Status, Impacts, and Remedies

Book Series: Marine Ecology: Current and Future Developments

Volume 1

by

De-Sheng Pei & Muhammad Junaid

DOI: 10.2174/97898114126911190101
eISBN: 9789811412691, 2019
ISBN: 9789811412684



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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i
Phyllis R. Strauss
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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)
De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid
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Dedication

- Pp. iv
De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid
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Acknowledgements

- Pp. v
De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid
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List of Contributors

- Pp. vi-ix (4)
De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid
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An Introduction to the Recent Perspectives of Marine Pollution

- Pp. 1-11 (11)
De-Sheng Pei, Muhammad Junaid and Naima Hamid

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Sampling Pelagic Marine Organisms

- Pp. 12-36 (25)
Ricardo Teles Pais and M. Ramiro Pastorinho

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Macroelements and Microelements in Marine Ecosystems: An Overview

- Pp. 37-67 (31)
Madson de Godoi Pereira, Daniel Carneiro Freitas, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza Neta, Arnaud Victor dos Santos, Joselito Nardy Ribeiro and Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro

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Sulfur, Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Nickel in Marine Ecosystems: Accumulation, Distribution, and Environmental Effects.

- Pp. 68-90 (23)
Madson de Godoi Pereira, Daniel Carneiro Freitas, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza Neta, Arnaud Victor dos Santos, Joselito Nardy Ribeiro and Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro

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Pollution Dynamics of Organic Contaminants in Marine Ecosystems

- Pp. 91-113 (23)
Donat-P. Häder

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Monitoring of Organic Pollutants: PCBs in Marine Ecosystem

- Pp. 114-135 (22)
Rabeea Zafar, Muhammad Arshad, Kanza Naseer, Muhammad Arif Ali, Zaheer Ahmed and Deedar Nabi

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An Overview of Pollution Dynamics along the Pakistan Coast with Special Reference of Nutrient Pollution

- Pp. 136-172 (37)
Noor U. Saher, Asmat S. Siddiqui, Nayab Kanwal, Altaf Hussain Narejo, Ayesha Gul, Muhammed A. Gondal and Fakhar I. Abbass

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Ecotoxicology of Heavy Metals in Marine Fish

- Pp. 173-230 (58)
Lizhao Chen, Sen Du, Dongdong Song, Peng Zhang and Li Zhang

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Effects of Microplastics in Marine Ecosystem

- Pp. 231-255 (25)
Fenghua Jiang, Chengjun Sun, Jingxi Li and Wei Cao

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Toxicity Evaluation in Flora and Fauna Exposed to Marine Pollution

- Pp. 256-274 (19)
Mazhar Iqbal Zafar, Mehtabidah Ali, Abida Farooqi, Riffat Naseem Malik, Zahid Iqbal and Shahbaz Ahmad

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Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a Model System to Study Marine Toxicology

- Pp. 275-293 (19)
Yan-Ling Chen, Naima Hamid, Muhammad Junaid and De-Sheng Pei

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Problems of Invasive Species: A Case Study from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, India

- Pp. 294-343 (50)
P.M. Mohan and Barbilina Pam

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Problems of Invasive Species

- Pp. 344-365 (22)
Jeyasingh Thelma

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Disturbance and Biodiversity of Marine Protected Areas

- Pp. 366-383 (18)
P.M. Mohan, Barbilina Pam, D.B.K.K. Sabith and Akshai Raj

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Monitoring of Environmental Indicators and Bacterial Pathogens in the Muthupettai Mangrove Ecosystem, Tamil Nadu, India

- Pp. 384-408 (25)
Rajendran Viji and Nirmaladevi D. Shrinithivihahshini

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Marine Microbial Mettle for Heavy Metal Bioremediation: A Perception

- Pp. 409-434 (26)
Haresh Z. Panseriya, Haren B. Gosai, Bhumi K. Sachaniya, Anjana K. Vala and Bharti P. Dave

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Occurrence and Bioremediation in the Marine Environment

- Pp. 435-466 (32)
Bhumi K. Sachaniya, Haren B. Gosai, Haresh Z. Panseriya, Anjana K. Vala and Bharti P. Dave

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Tackling Marine Pollution: Final Thoughts and Concluding Remarks

- Pp. 467-471 (5)
De-Sheng Pei, Muhammad Junaid and Naima Hamid

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Subject Index

- Pp. 472-477 (6)
De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid
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Foreword

This book, edited by De-Sheng Pei and Muhammad Junaid, emphasizes that the oceans are a vast but fragile resource that must be protected if we want to protect our livelihoods and our planet. Although marine pollution is a topic of concern for a long period of time, it has recently attracted the significant attention of scientific and non-scientific debate circles, including environmentalists, economists, and politicians. The chapters on methods to assess pollution provide important information for identifying, measuring, and remediating various pollutants, while the chapters on known pollutants and their management point out how widespread the problems are and how intense international effort is required to resolve the problems.

Besides providing food, transportation and lifestyle resources, the oceans serve as a vast sink to absorb increases in global heat, mitigating at least temporarily more extreme changes in global climate. But in doing so, oceans also present a threat to coastal communities by altering local weather patterns and disrupting local livelihoods with changes in acidity and temperature.

This book will prove to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and policymakers, who are working on the management and protection of the world’s valuable marine resources and environment.


Phyllis R. Strauss, Ph.D.
Matthews Distinguished Professor
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115,
USA

Preface

There are increasing environmental concerns about the current status of the world’s oceans. The rapid development of industrial zones and growth of human population in coastal areas have led to exploitation of marine resources resulting in chemical pollution from industry, domestic wastewater intrusion, invasion of non-native species, toxic algal bloom, and microbial pathogens. On the other hand, earth’s oceans offer abundant food resources, easy shipping, and coastal living. In this book, the experts from different countries in Asia, Europe, and America give their overviews and opinions about the current status of marine pollution, environmental impacts, and possible remedies.

Introductory Chapter 1 highlights the overall theme of this book: the importance of oceans in the 21st century. This chapter orderly presents an overview of pollution dynamics including inorganic pollutants (heavy metals, metalloids), organic pollutants (POPs-persistent organic pollutants, PAHs-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and PCBs-polychlorinated biphenyls), microplastics, and algal blooms in the marine environment. The second section specifically introduces the negative impacts of marine pollution and assessment methods to highlight the toxicity of marine pollutants. The last section of Chapter 1 is an overview of various remedial techniques, such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, and the challenges related to marine pollution. Chapter 2 describes common sampling procedures for the most diverse and abundant marine organisms that comprise ecosystem components under the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish. In this framework, biodiversity is assessed based on the status of ecosystem components, including phytoplankton biomass and diversity, zooplankton biomass and diversity, fish abundance and distribution, as well as marine turtle, bird and mammal abundance and distribution.

Chapters 3 & 4 highlight the important reactions of metals and non-metals with inorganic and organic constituents in marine water and sediments. In addition to these reactions, Chapter 3 also covers biokinetic aspects of two major marine environmental problems: eutrophication and the release of organotin compounds and copper from antifouling paints used on ships’ hulls, as an example of the effects of uncontrolled introductions of metals and non-metals on marine ecosystems. Chapter 4 highlights natural and anthropogenic sources of metals and non-metals, as well as their toxicity and accumulation in different marine organisms. Chapter 5 discusses pollution dynamics of organic contaminants and associated impacts in marine ecosystems. These contaminants include persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl compounds, fluorotelomer alcohols, perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, fluorotelomer sulfonic acids, and fluorinated polymers. Apart from POPs, microplastics and accidental oil spills are also highlighted in terms of their growing concern in oceanic gyres. Chapter 6 explores monitoring of organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem, including fate, distribution, and behavior of PCBs, as well as uptake of organic contaminants/PCBs by marine organisms.

Chapter 7 describes pollution dynamics along the Pakistan coast with special reference of nutrient pollution. In this Chapter, the magnitude of pollution (organic and inorganic) in coastal environments of Pakistan is discussed including plastic pollution, and enrichment of macro-nutrients in coastal waters leading to the explosion in frequency of harmful algal blooms. Chapter 8 explores ecotoxicology of heavy metals in marine fish. The authors review the occurrence and chemistry of heavy metals in the marine environment, as well as the bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals in marine fish. Chapter 8 also summarizes the public health risks due to the consumption of heavy metals’ contaminated fish. Chapter 9 highlights the effects of microplastic on the marine ecosystem. Further, several aspects related to research gaps for the management of microplastic waste are proposed. Chapter 10 explores methods to measure toxicity in flora and fauna exposed to different categories of marine pollutants, their sources, various exposure routes, and associated toxicological impacts on marine organisms. Chapter 11 covers the topic of chemical toxicity screening by using marine medaka (O. melastigma) as a model system. This chapter provides the recent research progress in the toxicological impacts and responsive biomarker of O. melastigma caused by various marine pollutants, such as heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants.

Chapter 12 reviews the problems of invasive species in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, India. Chapter 13 highlights the problems of dispersal of invasive species through marine ecosystems with a special focus on the case study of five invasive species and associated problems. Chapter 14 describes the effects of the disturbing unique island biodiversity of marine protected areas linked with the environmental changes influenced by anthropogenic activities, overexploitation of resources, and the habitat loss due to developmental activities and natural change in climate. Chapter 15 presents information on monitoring environmental indicators and bacterial pathogens in aquaculture practices impacted the Muthupettai Mangrove Ecosystem, Tamil Nadu, India. This chapter, a research article instead of a review, reports on the vulnerability of the mangrove ecosystems after continuous discharges of untreated aquaculture effluents have caused water quality to deteriorate so far that physiochemical parameters and bacterial pathogens highly exceed WHO, EU, and CPCB standard permissible limits.

Chapter 16 highlights the vast potential of marine microbes (bacteria and fungi) for their application in bioremediation of heavy metals. This chapter also discusses the specific factors influencing heavy metal bioremediation including biotic and abiotic factors. Chapter 17 focuses on bioremediation of low and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment through bacterial and fungal strains (lignolytic fungi and non-lignolytic fungi). Further, recent advancements in applications of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics technologies for in-depth investigation of microbial communities involved in PAHs remediation are summarized. Chapter 18 provides final thoughts and concluding remarks.

This book contains the latest progress in the theoretical background of marine pollutants, occurrence, distribution, risk assessment, and the bioremediation in the marine environment, which will be of specific interests for academic scientists, students, and government officials to develop background knowledge of marine pollution based multidisciplinary research.


De-Sheng Pei & Muhammad Junaid
Research Center for Environment and Health,
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Chongqing,
China

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
De-Sheng Pei & Muhammad Junaid
Research Center for Environment and Health,
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Chongqing,
China




Contributor(s):
Abida Farooqi
Department of Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University
Islamabad 45320
Pakistan


Akshai Raj
Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus
Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
India


Altaf Hussain Narejo
Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan


Anjana K. Vala
Department of Life Sciences
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University
Bhavnagar-364 001
India


Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro
Coordenação de Licenciaturas – Instituto Federal de Educação
Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Avenida Vitória, 1729, CEP: 29.040-780
Vitória-ES
Brazil


Arnaud Victor dos Santos
Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia
Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula
Salvador-BA
Brazil


Asmat S. Siddiqui
Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan


Ayesha Gul
Department of Biosciences COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology Park Road
Islamabad
Pakistan


Bharti P. Dave
Department of Life Sciences
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University
Bhavnagar-364 001
India
/
Department of Biosciences
School of Sciences, Indrashil University
Rajpur - Kadi - 382740
India


Bhumi K. Sachaniya
Department of Life Sciences
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University
Bhavnagar-364 001
India


Barbilina Pam
Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology
Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
India


Chengjun Sun
Marine Ecology Center
the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources
Qingdao 266061
China


Daniel Carneiro Freitas
Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia
Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula
Salvador-BA
Brazil


De-Sheng Pei
Research Center for Environment and Health
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chongqing, 400714
China


Deedar Nabi
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12
Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan


Donat-P. Häder
Department of Biology
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg
91054 Erlangen
Germany


Dongdong Song
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou
China


D.B.K.K. Sabith
Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus
Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
India


Fenghua Jiang
Marine Ecology Center
the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources
Qingdao 266061
China


Fakhar I. Abbass
Bioresource Research Centre Bazar road
Islamabad
Pakistan


Haresh Z. Panseriya
Department of Life Sciences
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University
Bhavnagar-364 001
India
/
Department of Biosciences
School of Sciences, Indrashil Universit
Rajpur - Kadi - 382740
India


Haren B. Gosai
Department of Life Sciences
Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University
Bhavnagar-364 001
India
/
Department of Biosciences
School of Sciences, Indrashil Universit
Rajpur - Kadi - 382740
India


Joselito Nardy Ribeiro
Centro de Ciências da Saúde – Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
Avenida Maruípe, S/N, CEP: 29.042-751
Vitória-ES
Brazil


Jingxi Li
Marine Ecology Center
the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources
Qingdao 266061
China


Kanza Naseer
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology
Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan


Lizhao Chen
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou
China


Li Zhang
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou
China


Lourdes Cardoso de Souza Neta
Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia
Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula
Salvador-BA
Brazil


Madson de Godoi Pereira
Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – Universidade do Estado da Bahia
Rua Silveira Martins, 2555, CEP: 41.150-000, Cabula
Salvador-BA
Brazil


Mazhar Iqbal Zafar
Department of Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University
Islamabad 45320
Pakistan


Mehtabidah Ali
Department of Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University
Islamabad 45320
Pakistan


Muhammad Junaid
Research Center for Environment and Health
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chongqing, 400714
China
/
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing 100049
China


Muhammad Arshad
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology
Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan


Muhammad Arif Ali
Department of Soil Science
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University
Multan
Pakistan


Muhammed A. Gondal
Department of Biosciences COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology Park Road
Islamabad
Pakistan


M. Ramiro Pastorinho
CICS-UBI
Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal
/
Department of Biology
University of Evora
Evora
Portugal
/
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Naima Hamid
ResearchCenterforEnvironmentandHealth
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chongqing, 400714
China
/
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing 100049
China


Nayab Kanwal
Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan


Nirmaladevi D. Shrinithivihahshinia
Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Management
School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024
Tamil Nadu
India


Noor U. Saher
Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan


Peng Zhang
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou
China


P.M. Mohan
Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology
Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, Port Blair – 744112
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
India


Rajendran Viji
Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Management
School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024
Tamil Nadu
India


Rabeea Zafar
Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology
Sector H-12, Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan
/
Department of Home and Health Sciences
Faculty of Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University
Sector H-8, Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan


Ricardo Teles Pais
CICS-UBI
Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Riffat Naseem Malik
Department of Environmental Sciences
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i- Azam University
Islamabad 45320
Pakistan


Shahbaz Ahmad
Institute of Agricultural Sciences
University of the Punjab
Lahore 54590
Pakistan


Sen Du
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou
China


Thelma Jeyasingh
Department of Zoology
Thiagarajar College, Madurai-625009
Tamilnadu
India


Wei Cao
Marine Ecology Center
the First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources
Qingdao 266061
China


Yan-Ling Chen
Research Center for Environment and Health
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chongqing 400714
China


Zaheer Ahmed
Department of Home and Health Sciences
Faculty of Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University
Sector H-8, Islamabad, 44000
Pakistan


Zahid Iqbal
Department of Pharmacology
Al-Nafees Medical College & Hospital, Isra University
Islamabad Campus, Islamabad
Pakistan




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