Sex Steroids and Apoptosis In Skeletal Muscle: Molecular Mechanisms

by

Andrea Vasconsuelo

DOI: 10.2174/97898114123631190101
eISBN: 978-981-14-1236-3, 2019
ISBN: 978-981-14-1235-6



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This monograph focuses on the actions exerted by sex hormones, 17β-estradiol and testosterone, in skeletal muscle tissue. An important co...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i
Anabela La Colla
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Preface

- Pp. ii
Andrea Vasconsuelo
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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii
Andrea A. Vasconsuelo
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Subcellular Localization and Physiological Roles of Androgen Receptor

- Pp. 1-62 (62)
Lucía Pronsato

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Subcellular Localization Of Estrogen Receptors

- Pp. 63-72 (10)
Lorena M. Milanesi

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Estrogens and Androgens Binding Sites in Mitochondria

- Pp. 73-79 (7)
Lorena M. Milanesi

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General Concepts of Skeletal Muscle and Apoptosis: Molecular Mechanisms and Regulation by Sex Steroids

- Pp. 80-111 (32)
Andrea Vasconsuelo and Lucia Pronsato

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Antiapoptotic Effects of Estrogens and Androgens

- Pp. 112-119 (8)
Lorena M. Milanesi

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Role Of Sex Hormones In Cytoskeletal Structure: Implications In Cellular Lifespan

- Pp. 120-126 (7)
Andrea Vasconsuelo

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Apoptosis As Cause Of Sarcopenia: Hormonal Regulation

- Pp. 127-143 (17)
Andrea Vasconsuelo

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The Role of Phytoestrogens in Apoptosis: Chemical Structures and Actions on Specific Receptors

- Pp. 144-164 (21)
María Belén Faraoni and Florencia Antonella Musso

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Conclusions

- Pp. 165-167 (3)
Andrea Vasconsuelo
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Subject Index

- Pp. 168-178 (11)
Andrea Vasconsuelo
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Foreword

Aging has serious consequences on skeletal muscle. ‘Sarcopenia’, the progressive loss of muscle mass and associated muscle weakness during elderly, affects radically the functional capacity and general health in adult people and renders frail elders susceptible to serious injury from sudden falls and fractures and at risk for losing their functional independence. There is a vital need to recognise the molecular mechanisms and regulatory factors, underlying age-related muscle wasting and to develop therapeutic strategies that can attenuate, prevent, or finally reverse sarcopenia. In this context, sexual hormones play a key role.

The book, SEX STEROIDS AND APOPTOSIS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE: MOLECULAR MECHANISMS, written by Dr. Andrea Vasconsuelo aims to provide a new way to perceive the role of sex hormones in skeletal muscle. The book present in integrated form the latest information on sarcopenia and its relation with apoptosis, from leading researchers studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying age-linked changes in skeletal muscle emphasising on the role of satellite cells. The authors succeed to explain, how hormones are involved in muscle homeostasis and in the regulation of apoptosis process and how these two functions connect to maintain a healthy muscle or to trigger pathologies. Therefore, the goal of this work is the combination of that information focusing on the molecular level and resulting in the clarification of molecular mechanisms implicated in skeletal muscle aging; when apoptosis is more intense and sex hormones levels decline. Very interesting, the book contains a chapter describing molecular structure of phytoestrogens and their action on sex steroids receptors. In addition, it is possible to emphasize the drafting writing promoting easy and pleasant reading, numerous and careful documentation, high quality images of the authors' experiments and comprehensive and updated bibliography. This ebook is of interest to graduates and postgraduates in the fields of medicine and biochemistry, researchers of different aspects of ageing biology and people of the pharmaceutical, and health-care industry.


Dr. Anabela La Colla
Dpto. De Química,
Facultad de Cincias Exactas y Naturales,
Universidad Nacional De
Mar del Plata. Argentina.
alacolla@criba.edu.ar


Preface

There are few ebooks available contains details on the integration of cellular apoptosis and sex steroids at the molecular level. Here, our intention is to show how hormonal signals activate cellular responses that have been discovered individually but, in reality when a signal reaches a cell those signaling cascades interact with all cellular components to different degrees. Therefore, with this work, we want to present in an integrated way the concepts of hormonal regulation and apoptosis. Moreover, it is important to know how these processes are at the molecular level since mistakes in them lead to pathologies. The present work centers on the role of 17b-Estradiol (E2) and Testosterone (T) in most animal tissues, in addition to the reproductive system. Highlighting the role of both hormones in the lifespan of the skeletal muscle cell.

First, we describe the role of E2 and T affecting growth and cell functions in mammals. Accordingly, the nuclear estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptors are ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, ER and AR may have non-classical intracellular localizations, e.g. plasma membrane, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum, raising complexity to the actions of E2 and T. As well as genomic actions, sex steroids can fast regulate signaling pathways by non-genomic mechanisms through ER and AR, too.

We continue describing basic concepts of programmed cell death and how both sex hormones can regulate apoptosis through those signaling pathways. In mitochondria, the existence of ER and AR and actions of estrogen and androgen have been demonstrated, in keeping with the organelle being the main switch point of programmed cell death. The recurrent action for each steroid hormone is the safeguard of mitochondria against diverse insults, resulting in cellular survival. Then we explain the role of sex hormones in mitochondrial physiology (ROS production, regulation of mitochondrial enzymes and oxidative system pathway). In addition, we describe the action of sex hormones on muscle stem cells at the molecular level. The book shows how the integration of all the processes described (the effects of sex hormones, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, depletion in muscle stem cells, augmented production of cellular toxins as ROS, and anomalous regulation of stress pathways) results in sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is a predominant disorder among the elderly, which implies the loss of muscle mass and strength. Although the basis of sarcopenia is unclear, evidence suggests that the putative molecular mechanism associated with this condition could be apoptosis. Remarkably, sarcopenia has been linked to a deficit of sex hormones, which decrease upon aging. The skeletal muscle capability to repair and regenerate itself would not be possible without satellite cells, a subpopulation of cells that remain quiescent throughout life. In response to stress, this muscle stem cells are activated directing skeletal muscle regeneration. Of relevance, satellite cells are E2 and T target. To end, the last chapter is devoted to natural compounds that have similarity with sex hormones and that could, therefore, have therapeutic potential. Finally, I thank the people who collaborated in this work and I hope that it fulfills the objective of presenting an integrated vision of the cellular mechanisms that are activated in response to hormones, regulating apoptosis specifically in the skeletal muscle.

Andrea Vasconsuelo
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR),
Universidad Nacional del Sur- CONICET,
Bahía Blanca,
Argentina

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Andrea Vasconsuelo
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Universidad Nacional del Sur- CONICET
Bahía Blanca
Argentina




Contributor(s):
Florencia Antonella Musso
Instituto de Química del Sur (INQUISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur- CONICET
Bahía Blanca
Argentina


Lucía Pronsato
Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR CONICET-UNS)
Bahía Blanca
Argentina


Lorena M. Milanesi
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas de Sur (INBIOSUR)-UNS-CONICET
Bahía Blanca
Argentina


Lucía Pronsato
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Universidad Nacional del Sur- CONICET
Bahía Blanca
Argentina


María Belén Faraoni
Instituto de Química del Sur (INQUISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur- CONICET
Bahía Blanca
Argentina




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