This reference informs readers about nanoscale design and synthesis of different nanomaterials. Chapters of the book account for variable nanoarchitecture, while explaining concepts which are central to the field of nanotechnology. It explains how nanodevices and microdevices can be used for nanophotonics, biophotonics and drug delivery applications. Advanced biochemical techniques ranging from fluorescence, plasmonics, enhanced plasmonics (EP) to metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) from colloidal dispersion to single luminescent nanoplatforms and nanospectroscopy, microfluidics, nanofluidics, silica wave-guiding, lasers, nanolasers and photonic circuits for enhanced signal detections are also presented. In addition, proof of concept ideas of microdevices and nanodevices to real applications within other allied disciplines such as genomics, biochemistry, drug delivery and clinical chemistry (based on advanced optical detection and imaging) are highlighted. The book is an informative reference for readers studying biochemistry, pharmacology, biomedical engineering and related subjects at all levels, as well as general readers who want to learn about advanced applications in optics and photonics.