Chapter 14

Principles of Treatment

Ozgur Karcioglu , Selman Yeniocak and Mandana Hosseinzadeh


It is well established that there is no ‘standard’ protocol for the treatment of COVID-19. The use of certain antiviral agents and antibiotics such as azithromycin has been concluded to be beneficial, and therefore, their use has been recommended. Namely, remdesivir and favipiravir may be the best potential antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. However, treatments should be tailored for every given patient in regard to the signs and symptoms, the severity of the disease, age and comorbid diseases, organ failures, phase of the disease, pregnancy status, and possible drug interactions. The use of NSAIDs as an antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agents appears to be indicated in viral infections such as COVID-19, also during pandemic periods. There is no evidence to support NSAIDs not to be used in COVID-19 infections due to their side effects. NSAIDs are used after paracetamol, if necessary, to manage the symptoms of COVID-19. Although it has been postulated that deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals (e.g., vitamins C and D), multi-center, community-based, well-designed studies are necessary to clarify their relationship with COVID-19, especially before recommending them for treatment. In brief, treatments should be individualized, and evidence-based principles must be followed.

Total Pages: 236-300 (65)

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.Influenza: A Century of Research.
.Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research-Anti-Infectives.
.Histopathological Diagnosis of Leprosy.
.COVID-19: Diagnosis and Management-Part II.