Editor: Nahum Rosenberg

Mesenchymal Cell Activation by Biomechanical Stimulation and its Clinical Prospects

Personal Book: US $39 Special Offer (PDF + Printed Copy): US $90
Printed Copy: US $71
Library Book: US $156
ISBN: 978-1-68108-200-4
eISBN: 978-1-68108-199-1 (Online)
Year of Publication: 2016
DOI: 10.2174/97816810819911160101

Introduction

The electrical response of cells to mechanical stimulus is known as mechanotransduction. This monograph is a summary of the mechanotransduction in musculoskeletal cells responsible for body tissue maintenance, support, cover and movement. While mechanotransduction is similar among these cells, there are also several important differences in mechanical parameters and cellular pathways characteristic to each cell type. Therefore, readers will have the opportunity to update their knowledge about the increasing volume of information on mechanotransduction in these cells gained from current research.

The book features a primer on general aspects of cellular biomechanics and the experimental methods and equipment commonly used for investigating cellular mechanotransduction in vitro in two dimensional cultures in which cells are adherent to plastic surfaces. Characteristic mechanotransduction pathways in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts are described in the accompanying chapters. Finally, a description of clinical implementation of mechanical stimulation is presented with emphasis on distraction osteogenesis, involving osteoblast stimulation, and skin stretching techniques based on fibroblast stimulation.

This monograph is a useful reference for readers involved in graduate courses or basic research in cell biology and musculoskeletal physiology.

Preface

Skin, bone and cartilage are the important examples of live tissues that respond to mechanical stimulation and that require it for their metabolic maintenance. The cells in these organs, which are responsible for matrix regeneration and responsive to mechanical stimulation, are, among others, the fibroblasts, the osteocytes (osteoblasts) and the chondrocytes (chondroblasts). All these cells are of the mesenchymal origin and maturate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It was previously shown than MSCs can maturate to one of these cell types when exposed to appropriate media (osteogenic, chondrogenic, etc.) with the addition of mechanical stimulation with the optimal characteristic mechanical parameters.

In this book the authors address the special characteristics of the responses of these types of cells to mechanical stimulation. The process of the cellular mechanical stimulation, mechanotransduction, is partially similar among these cells, but there are also several very important differences in mechanical parameters and cellular pathways. The current knowledge on the characteristic cellular mechanotransduction pathways is expanding. The authors aimed to concentrate on the description of the more investigated pathways, which are characteristic to each cell type.

The book starts with the chapters on general aspects of cellular biomechanics and description of the experimental equipment that is commonly used for the research of cellular mechanotransduction in vitro in two dimensional cultures, especially when the cells are adherent to plastic surfaces. The characteristic pathways of mechanotransduction in MSCs, osteoblasts and osteocytes, chondrocytes and fibroblasts are described in following chapters and eventually a description of clinical implementation of mechanical stimulation is added with emphasis on distraction osteogenesis, involving osteoblast stimulation, and on the skin stretching techniques based on fibroblasts’ stimulation.

The area of cellular mechanotransduction research is still widely open for further research and discoveries. In this book the authors tried to summarize the current knowledge on mechanotransduction in the MSCs and the three mature cell types, which are responsible for the maintenance of tissues that provide body support, cover and movement.

Nahum Rosenberg
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Rambam - Health Care Campus and Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa
Israel

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