The challenges of antibiotic resistance in the development of new therapeutics

Book Series: Frontiers in Antimicrobial Agents

Volume 1

by

Manuela Oliveira, Isa Serrano

DOI: 10.2174/97816810814031150101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-140-3, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-141-0
ISSN: 2452-2570 (Print)
ISSN: 2452-2589 (Online)



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Indexed in: EBSCO.

The addition of only two novel classes of antibiotics to fight drug resistant microorganisms in the clinic over the past three decades...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i
João João Mendes
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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)
Manuela Oliveira and Isa Serrano
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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)
Manuela Oliveira and Isa Serrano
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Introduction

- Pp. 3-9 (7)
Manuela Oliveira, Amélia Fernandes and Isa Serrano

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Bacteriophages as Antibacterial Agents: Why are We Facing an Antibiotic Crisis and How Could Bacteriophages be of Help?

- Pp. 10-32 (23)
Jean-Paul Pirnay, Gilbert Verbeken, Mario Vaneechoutte, Serge Jennes, Maya Merabishvili, Isa Serrano and Daniel De Vos

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Antimicrobial Peptides

- Pp. 33-68 (36)
Isa Domingues Serrano

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Probiotics: Ways of Action and Beneficial Effects

- Pp. 69-96 (28)
Nabil Benomar, Hikmate Abriouel, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Leyre Lavilla Lerma, María del Carmen Casado Muñoz and Antonio Gálvez

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Immunotherapy

- Pp. 97-148 (52)
Solange Gil, Dias J., Lourenço A.M., Leal R. and Tavares L.

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Perspectives on Natural Products

- Pp. 149-177 (29)
Ana Patrícia Quendera and Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek

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Bacteriocins

- Pp. 178-207 (30)
Sara Correia Santos, Manuela Oliveira and Teresa Semedo Lemsaddek

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Biocides – A Reasonable Alternative to Prevent and Control Microorganisms?

- Pp. 208-233 (26)
Rui Seixas and Carla Mottola

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Novel Therapeutic Strategies in Veterinary Medicine

- Pp. 234-260 (27)
Ana Duarte and Luis Tavares

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Summary

- Pp. 261-262 (2)
Manuela Oliveira and Isa Serrano
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Subject Index

- Pp. 263-266 (4)
Manuela Oliveira and Isa Serrano
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Foreword

The rapid development of highly effective antimicrobial agents during the 20th century revolutionized the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi; leading to the notion that "it was time to close the book on infectious diseases". However, today we are facing pandrug-resistant microorganisms, and antimicrobial resistance constitutes one of the major public health problems worldwide. Allied to this, the new antimicrobial agent’s development pipeline is at its all-time low; because of scientific, economic and regulatory hurdles.

While we must conserve the antimicrobials we have left by using them optimally, the process of developing new agents must also be accelerated. This will hopefully facilitate targeted therapy, improving therapeutic efficacy and decreasing antimicrobial resistance.

This book describes cutting-edge research on innovative alternatives to classical antimicrobial therapy – bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, immunomodulators, natural compounds, bacteriocins and biocides – and the most appropriate approaches to control the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms.

Interestingly, this book is edited and partly written by scholars dedicated to Microbiology from the area of Veterinary Medicine. This is not surprising, because the amount of antimicrobials marketed for use in animals is approximately four times greater than the quantity used in human medicine. Furthermore, the widespread use of antimicrobial agents in animal production – often administered in lower doses and for longer periods of time – has been linked to the development of antimicrobial resistance.

While the novel therapeutic strategies in Veterinary Medicine have been a major focus in the last chapter, the book has input from a wide range of experts in different disciplines – from basic science to human clinical microbiology – and truly reflects the ‘One-Health’ approach which spans humans, animals and the wider environment.

One final note to remember by the enthusiastic reader is that, bacteria have shown, in this continuous “arms race”, that they can develop resistance to virtually all therapeutic agents. Therefore, it is very important to continue to use both antibiotics and their alternatives rationally and judiciously.

João João Mendes
Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care Internal Medicine Department,
Santa Marta's Hospital/Central Lisbon Hospital Center,
Lisbon, Portugal


Preface

This eBook was conceived after an invitation by the Bentham Science Publishers due to the necessity to review the alternative approaches to the classic antibiotic therapies, and to disperse the shadows over the use of these innovative medicines.

The prevalence of drug-resistant microorganisms has increased worldwide. However, in the last years, few novel entities to fight drug resistant microorganisms have entered the clinic. The antibacterial pipeline is scarce because of the costs associated with the clinical trials and licensing of the antibiotics. Therefore, the quest for alternatives to the classic antimicrobial therapeutics that are effective against drug resistant microorganisms is a timely and very important issue in modern medicine.

The development of novel entities to control the dissemination of drug resistant microorganisms would decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by these disease causing agents, and consequently the economic burden associated with health treatments. Some of these drugs are considered extremely valuable in the nearly future due to their low toxicity, capacity for large scale production, and most importantly their low probability to generate resistance. However, the fear associated to the use of innovative medicines such as phage therapy must be overcome. It will take time to bring phage therapy and other approaches to practice with safety, and to change mentalities of clinicians and the general public. The implementation of such innovative medicines will lead to a decrease in the antimicrobial resistance and related failure treatments. This progress will require contribution of different levels of interdisciplinary knowledge: from researchers to public health entities, from producers to consumers, including politicians.

This eBook aims to contribute to an integrated understanding concerning innovative alternatives to the classical antimicrobial therapeutics. It is based on cutting edge research and the outcome will shed light on the most appropriate approach to control the dissemination of drug resistant microorganisms. It gathers a wide range of topics on the subject and includes several chapters with original material. Authors and co-authors represent a multidisciplinary team that includes scientists and professors with a vast experience in the area, from different universities and research institutions. It is an attempt to encourage the implementation of alternative approaches to the classic antimicrobial therapeutics in human and veterinary health programmes.

The eBook is organized in nine chapters: the general introduction is followed by a review devoted to Phage Therapy, Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs), Probiotics, Immunotherapy, Natural Compounds, Bacteriocins, Biocides, and lastly to the Novel Therapeutic Strategies in Veterinary Medicine.

Finally, we would like to thank all authors that have enthusiastically contributed to this eBook, and all people that somehow helped us to bring it to daylight, including our family, friends, colleagues and students.

Manuela Oliveira & Isa Serrano
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa
Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa
Portugal

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Manuela Oliveira
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa
Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa
Portugal


Isa Serrano
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa
Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa
Portugal




Contributor(s):
Antonio Gálvez Ruiz
Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias
Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, Jaén, 23071
Spain


Ana P. Duarte
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Carla Mottola
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Daniel De Vos
Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Technology (LabMCT)
Queen Astrid Military Hospital
Brussels
Belgium


Isa Domingues Serrano
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Manuela Oliveira
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Rui Seixas
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Solange Gil
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal


Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek
Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA)
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da
Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477
Portugal




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