Chapter 4

Genomic Characterization of SARS-CoV-2

Faisal Siddique*, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Maida Manzoor, Firasat Hussain, Muhammad Saeed, Kashif Rahim and Asif Javaid

Abstract

Coronaviruses is associated with three big public health nightmares in the 21st century globally, such as acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, in 2002), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, in 2012), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2, in 2020). They have caused respiratory diseases in humans, particularly in the elderly, children, and pre-existing comorbidities and immunocompromised patients. SARS-CoV-2 was first recorded in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, Chinathat severely affecting the world economy by more than $1 trillion. It consists of an enveloped lipid bilayer and a positive-sense RNA genome. The genome size is approximately 30 kb. The SARSCoV- 2 structure consists of many essential proteins such as spike glycoprotein (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (NC). This chapter highlights the updated knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infections such as current and background history, phylogenetic tree analysis of SARS-CoV-2, expression of ACE2 genes in human tissues, phylogenic of S surface glycoprotein gene, M protein, E protein, NC protein, evolutionary resemblance/comparison with SARS-CoV-2 and MERS gene, the role of replication of novel strain lead to COVID-19, factors involve in COVID-19 pathogenesis and conserved and non-conserved gene of SARS-CoV-2. This study may be a little supportive of the battle against COVID-19 infection worldwide.

Total Pages: 98-132 (35)

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