Hypertension in Thyroid Disorders
Lebriz Uslu-Beşli and Pınar Atukeren
Although prevalence of hypertension is high in the population, underlying pathology can be determined only in the 10% of the cases and called secondary hypertension. Endocrine disorders are the second most common cause of secondary hypertension after renal diseases. Thyroid diseases are relatively rare causes of secondary hypertension; however, thyroid dysfunction is common in the population. Thyroid hormones affect all physiological systems, including cardiovascular system and blood pressure regulation. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause hypertension using different mechanisms of action. Hyperthyroidism generally results in increased cardiac output and systolic hypertension, whereas hypothyroidism is associated with increased peripheral vascular resistance, causing diastolic hypertension. As hypertension due to an underlying thyroid disease is reversible if early and adequate therapy is given, thyroid disease related hypertension has to be excluded in hypertensive patients.
This chapter summarizes the present knowledge on the pathogenesis of thyroid disease related hypertension, as well as common thyroid diseases related with hypertension, their diagnosis and treatment alternatives.Total Pages: 139-159 (21)