Chapter 6

Cardiac Catheterization and Endomyocardial Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Heart Failure in Children

Ralf J. Holzer and Ziyad M. Hijazi


The most likely etiology of cardiac failure in neonates, children and young adults varies greatly by age and is often different from the type of etiology seen in adult patients. As such, the need for cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy depends on the (potential) underlying diagnosis and has to be carefully evaluated for every case, including the need for anesthesia, angiography and cardiac output evaluations.

Total Pages: 157-168 (12)

Purchase Chapter  Book Details


.Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Cardiovascular Disease Complications: A Textbook for Medical Students.
.Perinatal Cardiology-Part 1.
.Perinatal Cardiology-Part 2.
.4D Fetal Echocardiography.
.Otolaryngology for the Pediatrician.
.Synopsis of General Pediatric Practice.