Chapter 2

A: Alignment

Syuichi Koarada and Mariko Sakai


Category A is alignment. Alignment includes mal-alignment, deformities and fractures, axis, subluxation, luxation, height of carpals, abnormal outline of bones. Mal-alignments and deformities of the joints are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There are various deformities including swan-neck deformities, Button-hole deformities, ulnar deviation of the MCP joints, palamarsubluxation at the MCP joints, Zigzag deformities, splaying laterally of the digits, and so on. In the spine, atlantoaxial subluxation is important in RA.

Total Pages: 4-72 (69)

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