Chapter 13

Preventive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines: Immunogenicity, Efficacy and Safety

Amitis Ramezani and Arezoo Aghakhani


Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection can cause cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers in women and penile cancer in men. HPV can also cause oropharyngeal and anal cancers and genital warts in both women and men. HPV types 16 and 18 are the most carcinogenic types and are responsible for about 70% of the cervical cancers. HPV types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58 account for an additional 20% of the cervical malignancies worldwide. Currently, three vaccines are available on the market that prevent HPV infection including bivalent Cervarix targeting HPV types 16 and 18, quadrivalent Gardasil targeting HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11, and 9-valent Gardasil-9 targeting HPV 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 in addition to HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11. The present chapter discusses the HPV vaccines and their immunogenicity, efficacy, safety and side effects.

Total Pages: 170-181 (12)

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.COVID-19: Epidemiology, Biochemistry, and Diagnostics.
.Frontiers in Anti-infective Agents.
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