Chapter 9

Risk Factors and Symptoms for HPV-Related Cancers

Kimia Kardani and Azam Bolhassani


Up to now, the major environmental risk factors have been reported to develop cervical cancer such as smoking, parity, nutrition, and HPV infections. However, it is not clear whether the association of these environmental factors with cervical cancer leads to further sensitivity against HPV infection (i.e., as cofactors to HPV infection) or they may act as independent risk factors in cervical carcinogenesis. In this chapter, the correlation of HPV infections and risk factors with various cancers will be described.

Total Pages: 120-128 (9)

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