Chapter 3

The Applied Mechanical Vibration as Ultrasound Energy

Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Simona Maria Carmignano and Raoul Saggini

Abstract

Ultrasound is a form of mechanical energy transmitted through and into biological tissues as an acoustic pressure wave at frequencies higher than that of the upper limit of human hearing, and it is used widely in medicine as a therapeutic, operative, and diagnostic tool. Therapeutic US has a frequency range of 0.75-3 MHz, with most machines set at a frequency of 1 or 3 MHz. Ultrasound can produce many effects other than just the potential heating effect, acting as a mechanotransduction, a complex biological process that involves the spatial and temporal orchestration of numerous cell types, hundreds if not thousands of genes, and the intricate organization of the extracellular matrix. The intensity or power density of the ultrasound can be adjusted depending on the desired effect and the target tissue.

Total Pages: 89-180 (92)

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