Chapter 4

Pathophysiology of Alzheimer Disease: Current Drug Therapy

Sumeet Gupta and Vikas Jhawat

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative age related disease in which patients of age 65 or more suffer from memory impairment problems. This disease is related to the nervous system degradation and various pathophysiological conditions have been identified such as formation of β-amyloid and plaques, nerve degeneration, neurotransmitter depletion, accumulation of toxins, oxidative stress and inflammation. Local RAS system in the brain is different from vascular RAS and play an important role in pathophysiology of AD. RAS system modulates inflammatory processes, neurotransmitter activity and amyloid and plaque formation. Angiotensin II, a vasoconstriction peptide of RAS system also induces neuronal cell loss by the process of cell senescence. Genetic polymorphism is also an important factor for pathophysiology and treatment of AD. No treatment is available which can eradicate AD completely; only prophylactic treatments are available which gives only prophylactic relief. Treatments are given which improve the pathophysiological condition of the disease and restore the brain cells activity. Treatment approach includes prevention of β amyloid and plaque formation, restoration of neurotransmitter system, prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation. Other than allopathic medicines, traditional system of medicines also have number of herbs and plants which have the property of learning and memory improvement via different mechanism of actions.

Total Pages: 87-109 (23)

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