Chapter 12

Evolution of Monoaminergic System Degeneration in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease

Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi, Fatemeh S. Mojabi and Ahmad Salehi


A multitude of neuropathological studies has established a robust link between Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Through massive projections to the entire cortex and hippocampus, the monoaminergic-systems exert a powerful modulatory effect on brain regions vitally important for cognition. Nevertheless, substantial evidence demonstrates these systems are inherently vulnerable to neurodegeneration, particularly in Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, abnormalities in the structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic systems constitute a common characteristic of both disorders. Underlying these deficits are neuropathological changes in the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe and tuberomamillary nuclei. Fortunately, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that pharmacotherapies targeting of these systems may provide symptomatic relief along with disease modifying effects in Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease.

Total Pages: 273-291 (19)

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.Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders.
.Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research-Dementia.
.Advances in Alzheimer Research.
.Recent Advances in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders.
.Advances in Alzheimer Research.
.Cellular and Molecular Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders.