Chapter 9

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Advances and Surgical Applications

Maria-Angeles Aller, Maria-Paz de Miguel, Carlos Jiménez, Sherezade Fuentes-Julián, Alejandro Manrique, Alejandro Blázquez-Martínez, Jorge Calvo, Cristina Pascual, Francisco Arnalich-Montiel and Jaime Arias

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used in regenerative medicine mainly based on their capacity to differentiate into specific cell types and also as bioreactors of soluble factors that will promote tissue regeneration from the damaged tissue cellular progenitors. Moreover, MSCs can stop a variety of immune cell functions: cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity of T and NK cells; B cell maturation and antibody secretion; DC maturation and activation; as well as antigen presentation. In this scenario, an inflammatory environment seems to be necessary to promote their effect. Preclinical studies have been conducted in rodents, rabbits and baboon monkeys among others for bone marrow, skin, heart, and corneal transplantation, graft-vs.-host disease, hepatic and renal failure, lung injury, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes and lupus diseases. Preliminary results from some of these studies have led to human clinical trials; prevention of allograft rejection and enhancement of the survival of bone marrow and kidney grafts.

Total Pages: 250-276 (27)

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