Based on currently available FDA guidelines, treatment options for AD include acetycholine esterase inhibitors for mild to moderate cases and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate to severe forms of AD. Alongside with symptomatic drugs, novel disease modifying approaches are currently tested such as amyloid-based therapies, inhibitor and/or modulators of secretases, statins, inhibitors of receptors for advanced glycation end products, aggregation inhibitors, erythropoetin derivatives, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists and immunotherapy. Furthermore, therapeutic targets in the treatment of AD include approaches directed against tau protein such as tau protein aggregation inhibitors and inhibitors of tau kinases. Anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants are also used as neuroprotective advancements in AD therapy. Finally, alteration of ion homeostasis and neuronal regeneration approaches are currently implemented in the attempt to modify AD progression, stop neurodegeneration or enhance neurogenesis.
Even though AD treatment options as stated above are numerous,in majority of cases these drugs produce only modest improvements of AD symptoms and none of the available treatment options can cure or stop disease progression. Only full and complete knowledge of its etiology will provide favorable results in AD prevention and therapy.
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