Chapter 9

Indications for Adrenaline: Use by Patients and Emergency Departments

Miguel A. Tejedor-Alonso, Maria V. Mugica-Garcia and Mar Moro-Moro

Abstract

Experts agree that prompt use of intramuscular adrenaline is beneficial for patients experiencing anaphylaxis. Adrenaline is administered using autoinjectors, which are indicated in patients with a high risk of anaphylaxis, namely, those who have already experienced anaphylactic reactions and have comorbid persistent asthma, those who have reacted to trace amounts of allergen, those who have experienced mild reactions to peanut or tree nut, those with mastocytosis and finally adolescents. </p><p> However, the frequency of administration of adrenaline by patients and physicians in clinical settings is low. Autoinjectors are prescribed in less than 50% of cases; availability and use by patients can be less than 75%. Administration of adrenaline in emergency departments is also uncommon, in many cases less than 50%, although many series show increased use of adrenaline when anaphylaxis is severe. </p><p> Our main objectives are to conduct a comprehensive review and update of the use of epinephrine in anaphylaxis episodes (the first and recurrences) both by patients and by the emergency services, after synthesizing the most accepted indications of epinephrine use in anaphylaxis. All this information remains dispersed in the literature on anaphylaxis.

Total Pages: 330-363 (34)

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