- Pp. 172-182 (11)Manabu Kamimura
ENF peptides are a family of insect specific multifunctional peptides consisting of 23-25 amino acids. They are involved in the regulation of many important biological processes, such as immunity, development, homeostasis, hibernation, and therefore regarded as a group of insect cytokines. In this chapter, I briefly review the structure biological functions, and modes of action of the ENF peptides.