Chapter 2

TLRs in the Lung in Health and Disease

Toshihiro Ito and Steven L. Kunkel

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and acquired immune responses. TLRs recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA, and flagellin, among others. Their activation and signaling lead to the induction of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons for host defense. In addition, the responses of the innate immune system are important not only in the elimination of pathogens but also in the development of antigen-specific acquired immunity mediated by B and T cells. TLRs are also involved in non-infectious diseases such as lung injury, COPD, fibrosis, allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. Here we describe some features of the regulation of TLRs in a variety of lung diseases.

Total Pages: 12-25 (14)

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