The Molecular Basis for the Link between Maternal Health and the origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities: An Overview of Association with Oxidative Stress

by

Bashir M. Matata , Maqsood M. Elahi

DOI: 10.2174/97816080528681110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-286-8, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-536-4



Indexed in: Chemical Abstracts, Scopus, EBSCO.

This e-book discusses the molecular relationship between biological systems and risk factors for in-utero oxidative insults, maternal ...[view complete introduction]
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Diabetes, Developmental Programming and Oxidative Stress

- Pp. 116-126 (11)

Marie Saint-Faust, Isabelle Ligi, Farid Boubred and Umberto Simeoni

Abstract

<p>Incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. Diabetes during pregnancy, as adverse intrauterine environment, has been shown to induce long term effects and play a crucial role in developmental programming in offspring. In utero exposure to increased maternal blood glucose concentrations is associated with cardio-vascular alterations, including hypertension and increased risk for obesity and T2DM at adulthood. Early programming of later dysfunction and disease in offspring may result from a combination of mechanisms acting at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Impaired glucose-insulin metabolism programmed during the critical window of perinatal development may contribute to epigenetic changes in gene expression. This disadvantageous intrauterine environment has been recently emphasised by the role of genetic pathways and in particular, perinatal disturbance of the oxidative state. This chapter examines the epidemiologic and mechanistic issues involved in the developmental programming of long term consequences in offspring of diabetic mothers, with a particular focus on oxidative stress. It also emphasises the mechanisms of hypertension, obesity and insulin resistance. In that considerable concern and because maternal diabetes may be a contributor to the current worldwide epidemic of T2DM, interventions aimed at optimizing maternal blood glucose concentrations during pregnancy should significantly impact T2DM epidemiology.</p>

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