Chapter 1

Emerging Research and Therapeutic Strategies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Tomoaki Tanaka and Tatsuya Nakatani


Docetaxel has until recently been the only agent with a small survival benefit for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). To improve the clinical outcome in CRPC, numerous classes of drugs targeting specific pathways involved in hormone action, bone metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis and immune response have recently been investigated for efficacies either as single agents or in combination with docetaxel. Of note, some novel agents or vaccines including cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T and abiraterone have received US governmental approval to treat patients with CRPC on the evidence of significant improvement of overall survival in CRPC. From the viewpoint of the complex mechanisms implicated in prostate cancer progression, effective therapeutic strategies should be developed by multifaceted approaches, such as the composition of novel agents targeting key molecules, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Recently patented molecules (e.g., N-cadherin, AR splicing variants, PCGEM-1, ELR-CXC chemokine antagonist, dual inhibitor of MET and VEGF) have strong potential as therapeutic options for CRPC. Here, we review the newest evidence of novel agents and patented compounds and methods for the purpose of future use in CRPC.

Total Pages: 3-34 (32)

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