Chapter 13

4D Study of Left Heart Anomalies

Giuseppe Rizzo and Domenico Arduini


In this chapter, the 2D, color Doppler and four dimensional (4D) features of major right heart abnormalities are described. In particular, the echocardiographic views on which the various lesions are present are reported. The diagnostic role of 4D echocardiography in allowing a spatial demonstration of the defects with the possibility of getting new views into the heart is outlined. Videos of major diagnostic features are also provided, to facilitate the understanding of the text.

Total Pages: 119-134 (16)

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.Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Cardiovascular Disease Complications: A Textbook for Medical Students.
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.Perinatal Cardiology-Part 2.